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1. chinaXiv:202201.00061 [pdf]

学步期焦虑影响5岁幼儿创造力:一般认知和掌握动机的链式中介作用

成童; 程南华; 王美芳; 王争艳
Subjects: Psychology >> Developmental Psychology

儿童早期焦虑是一种常见的心理卫生问题,影响个体中央执行功能的发展,而个体中央执行功能所表现的认知能力的发展通常反映出个体创造性问题解决的过程。本研究采用追踪研究设计,探讨了学步期儿童焦虑对其学龄前期创造力的长时影响及其潜在作用机制。来自北京的96个家庭(男孩42名,女孩54名)参与了本研究。在儿童1岁和2岁时,母亲填写中国版《12~36月龄幼儿情绪社会性评估量表》和家庭基本信息调查表。在儿童2岁时,采用贝利婴幼儿发展量表评估幼儿的一般认知能力;在儿童3岁时,母亲报告儿童掌握动机情况;在儿童5岁时,采用托兰斯活动与动作创造性思维测验评估儿童的创造力。研究结果表明:(1)儿童学步期焦虑(广泛性焦虑和分离焦虑)可以显著负向预测其5岁时的创造力;(2)一般认知能力和掌握动机在儿童学步期焦虑(广泛性焦虑和分离焦虑)和学前期创造力之间的链式中介作用成立;(3)儿童学步期广泛性焦虑还可以通过直接负向预测掌握动机,从而对其5岁创造力的表现产生消极影响。

submitted time 2022-01-21 Hits96Downloads27 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202201.00063 [pdf]

基于伪装原理研究无意识视觉运动加工的方法

赵佳旭; 鲍敏
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

研究提出一种新的连续闪烁抑制(CFS)范式,利用透明度混合(alpha blending)原理,使目标刺激的颜色与相应位置的掩蔽刺激的颜色时刻保持一致。研究随机招募了8名被试,向其优势眼呈现Mondrian图像序列,非优势眼呈现固定速率运动的多个正方形。结果表明目标为多运动点动态刺激时,该范式依然具备掩蔽作用,且当目标刺激与相应位置的掩蔽刺激的颜色完全一致时,掩蔽效果最好,证明这种新范式比传统CFS范式对动态刺激的掩蔽作用更好。相比以往修改CFS掩蔽刺激的思路,该范式为研究无意识视觉运动加工提供了新方法,且适用性更广。

submitted time 2022-01-21 Hits91Downloads23 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202201.00062 [pdf]

员工真诚对同事关系的双刃剑效应:共事时间的调节作用

汤一鹏; 贾荣雯; 龙立荣; 任芷宇; 蒲小萍
Subjects: Psychology >> Management Psychology

目前普遍认为员工在职场中的真诚有助于该员工与同事建立良好的关系。本研究提出员工真诚对同事关系的影响很可能积极和消极并存,其作用效果取决于员工与同事之间的共事时间。基于社会渗透理论并整合归因的文献,本研究认为同事怀疑和同事信任是员工真诚影响同事关系的关键中介机制。为检验本研究理论模型假设,采用轮询问卷法(round-robin survey)和实验法分别开展两个独立调研。结果发现:在共事时间较短的情况下,员工真诚会引发同事怀疑降低同事信任,减少人际帮助并增加人际排斥。在共事时间较长的情况下,员工真诚则有助于打消同事怀疑增加同事信任,增多人际帮助并减少人际排斥。通过引入共事时间作为调节变量,本研究发现员工真诚对同事关系的影响由消极转化为积极需要经过足够长时间的共事才能实现。

submitted time 2022-01-21 Hits86Downloads20 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202201.00064 [pdf]

Determination of neutron-skin thickness using configurational information entropy

Ma, Chun-Wang ; Liu, Yi-Pu; Wei, Hui-Ling; Pu, Jie; Cheng, Kai-Xuan; Wang, Yu-Ting
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Configurational information entropy (CIE) theory was employed to determine the neutron skin thickness of neutron-rich calcium isotopes. The nuclear density distributions and fragment cross-sections in 350 MeV/u 40-60Ca + 9Be projectile fragmentation reactions were calculated using a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. CIE quantities were determined from the nuclear density, isotopic, mass, and charge distributions. The linear correlations between the CIE determined using the isotopic, mass, and charge distributions and the neutron skin thickness of the projectile nucleus show that CIE provides new methods to extract the neutron skin thickness of neutron-rich nuclei.

submitted time 2022-01-21 From cooperative journals:《Nuclear Science and Techniques》 Hits85Downloads18 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202201.00065 [pdf]

Anisotropy flows in Pb–Pb collisions at LHC energies from parton scatterings with heavy quark trigger

Wang, Hai; Chen, Jin-Hui
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

By implementing an additional heavy quark–antiquark pair production trigger in a multiphase transport (AMPT) model, we study the effect on anisotropy flows of identified particles with a focus on charged particles and quarkonium (J/Ψ and Υ). A systematic increase in the collision rate for active partons in the AMPT model with such an implementation has been observed. It leads to a slight increase of identified particles anisotropy flows as a function of transverse momentum (pT ) and rapidity, and gives a better description of the experimental data of elliptic flow toward larger pT . Our approach provides an efficient way to study the heavy quark dynamics in the AMPT model at LHC energies.

submitted time 2022-01-21 From cooperative journals:《Nuclear Science and Techniques》 Hits87Downloads17 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202201.00060 [pdf]

利他行为的遗传基础:来自定量遗传学和分子遗传学的证据

李海虹; 尚思源; 谢晓非
Subjects: Psychology >> Social Psychology

利他行为是指个体耗损自身资源帮助他人的行为。近年来,研究者关注利他行为的遗传基础,基于定量遗传学和分子遗传学两类研究方法,探讨了利他行为的遗传率,证实利他行为确实受遗传所影响,以及发现了四类利他候选基因,包括多巴胺受体基因、5-羟色胺转运体基因、催产素受体基因、和加压素受体基因,并在此基础上讨论环境在基因对利他影响中的作用。一方面基因与环境相关联,二者共同影响利他行为,即基因-环境相关;另一方面基因的效应受环境影响,即差别易感性模型。未来研究需拓展神经生物系统探索,注重全基因组研究、元分析和机制探索,和进行系统的环境干预实践。

submitted time 2022-01-20 Hits99Downloads22 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202201.00059 [pdf]

Reappraisal of the largest ctenochasmatid Moganopterus zhuiana L?et al., 2012

GAO Dian-Song; JIANG Shun-Xing; XU Li1 CHENG Xin; YANG Li-Li; JIA Song-Hai; WANG Xiao-Lin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Moganopterus zhuiana L?et al. 2012 was erected as a member of the Boreopteridae, which was questioned by different researchers shortly after the publication. Although the new assignment to the Ctenochasmatidae is widely accepted by pterosaur researchers, some characteristics still require a detailed description. Here, the holotype of this taxon is restudied, and some ambiguous characteristics are re-identified. The diagnosis of this taxon has been revised as the following: a large ctenochasmatid pterosaur, which can be distinguished from other members of this clade by a single autapomorphy: an elongated rod-like parietal crest that extends posterodorsally, forming an angle of about 15?with the ventral margin of the skull. This taxon can be further distinguished from other ctenochasmatids on the basis of the following combination of characteristics: straight occlusal surfaces of the upper and low jaws; presence of a low premaxillary crest confined anterior to the nasoantorbital fenestra; rostrum about two thirds of the skull length; nasoantorbital fenestra occupying slightly more than 20% of the skull length; about 100 slender teeth; and a mid-cervical length/width ratio of about 7. The wingspan of M. zhuiana has been re-estimated according to a simple regression equation for wingspan versus skull length in ctenochasmatids. It confirms that M. zhuiana, although smaller than previous thought, is still the largest known ctenochasmatid. When comparing the sizes of ctenochasmatids in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, ctenochasmatids showed a rough tendency to increase their sizes.

submitted time 2022-01-19 From cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits122Downloads32 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202201.00058 [pdf]

科研诚信外部规范视域:国家科技计划项目随机抽检的现实驱动与学理依据

刘胜利
Subjects: Management Science >> Science ology and Management

为从本质、源头和原理层面深化各方对“国家科技计划项目抽检”的经验认知,本研究基于科研诚信外部规范的理论视角,对其制度化实践的现实驱动和学理依据进行了系统整理和阐述,并从四个方面提出了建设性意见,以之促进形成群策群力、理性决策的制度实践氛围。论述对于“破四唯、五唯”时代科研管理实践和科学政策学理论建构,具有基础性参考意义。

submitted time 2022-01-19 Hits145Downloads27 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202201.00057 [pdf]

Ladderpath theory: A new look at complexity and information

Liu, Yu; Di, Zengru; Gerlee, Philip
Subjects: Information Science and Systems Science >> Basic Disciplines of Information Science and Systems Science

The notion of information and complexity are important concepts in many scientific fields such as molecular biology, evolutionary theory and exobiology. Most measures of these quantities, such as Shannon entropy and related complexity measures, are only defined for objects drawn from a statistical ensemble and cannot be computed for single objects. We attempt to fill this gap by introducing the notion of a ladderpath which describes how an object can be decomposed into an hierarchical structure using repetitive elements. From the ladderpath two measures naturally emerge: the ladderpath-index and the order-index, which represent two axes of complexity. We show how the ladderpath theory can be applied to both strings and spatial patterns and argue that all systems that undergo evolution can be described as ladderpaths. Further, we discuss possible applications to human language and origins of life. The ladderpath theory provides a novel characterization of the information that is contained in a single object (or a system) and could aid in our understanding of evolving systems and the origin of life in particular.

submitted time 2022-01-19 Hits91Downloads28 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202201.00056 [pdf]

团队行动中反思与团队创新关系研究的动态视角 ——认知与情绪的双元路径

刘薇; 沈晓玲
Subjects: Management Science >> Development and Management of Human Resources

在复杂变化的市场环境中,在我国实施创新驱动战略的背景下,企业的长远发展需要依赖于团队创新以建立独特竞争优势。通过对已有团队反思与创新关系研究的梳理,发现了二者间关系的黑箱,理论认为回顾过去能够带来新思想和新变化,然而针对其如何实现的过程机制的实证研究却十分匮乏。基于此,在传统的行动后反思的思想基础上,本研究提出团队行动中反思在概念内涵和实证测量上的区别,检验行动中反思和行动后反思在不同创新阶段的差异性作用,动态性分析创意形成和创意实施的行为结果,通过整合动机性信息加工理论和情绪的社会功能视角,提出认知层面的信息处理和情感层面的团队情绪这两种机制的耦合方式,构建团队反思影响创新的整体模型,并深入探讨影响作用的过程机制和边界条件,以及对各阶段关系上情境因素的调节作用进行全面的分析,为反思与创新理论和实践做出贡献。

submitted time 2022-01-18 Hits57Downloads29 Comment 0

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