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1. chinaXiv:202201.00057 [pdf]

Ladderpath theory: A new look at complexity and information

Liu, Yu; Di, Zengru; Gerlee, Philip
Subjects: Information Science and Systems Science >> Basic Disciplines of Information Science and Systems Science

The notion of information and complexity are important concepts in many scientific fields such as molecular biology, evolutionary theory and exobiology. Most measures of these quantities, such as Shannon entropy and related complexity measures, are only defined for objects drawn from a statistical ensemble and cannot be computed for single objects. We attempt to fill this gap by introducing the notion of a ladderpath which describes how an object can be decomposed into an hierarchical structure using repetitive elements. From the ladderpath two measures naturally emerge: the ladderpath-index and the order-index, which represent two axes of complexity. We show how the ladderpath theory can be applied to both strings and spatial patterns and argue that all systems that undergo evolution can be described as ladderpaths. Further, we discuss possible applications to human language and origins of life. The ladderpath theory provides a novel characterization of the information that is contained in a single object (or a system) and could aid in our understanding of evolving systems and the origin of life in particular.

submitted time 2022-01-19 Hits79Downloads24 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202201.00035 [pdf]


Wang, Rensheng; Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

在改进的量子分子动力学模型框架下,研究了高能氘核在重靶核作用下的碎裂过程,尤其近零度角产生的中子。模拟重现了 102 MeV d+C 反应中实验测量的中子双微分截面。根据模型与实验结果的一致性,论证了通过氘核在碳靶上碎裂而产生高能中子束的可行性。但因氘核内部核子的费米运动,使得包含实验室0°在内的中子能量具有相当大的能量展宽。基于模型计算,通过测量氘核碎裂过程中出射的伴随质子,出射中子能量可约束在5%(1σ)以内。进一步,本工作论证了基于伴随质子测量的单能高能中子束产生的可行性。

submitted time 2022-01-07 Hits2470Downloads137 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202201.00011 [pdf]

Determination of neutron-skin thickness using configurational information entropy

Ma, Chun-Wang ; Liu, Yi-Pu ; Wei, Hui-Ling ; Pu, Jie ; Cheng, Kai-Xuan ; Wang, Yu-Ting
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

Configurational information entropy (CIE) theory was employed to determine the neutron skin thickness of neutron-rich calcium isotopes. The nuclear density distributions and fragment cross-sections in 350 MeV/u 40060Ca + 9Be projectile fragmentation reactions were calculated using a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model. CIE quantities were determined from the nuclear density, isotopic, mass, and charge distributions. The linear correlations between the CIE determined using the isotopic, mass, and charge distributions and the neutron skin thickness of the projectile nucleus show that CIE provides new methods to extract the neutron skin thickness of neutron-rich nuclei.

submitted time 2021-12-31 Hits2515Downloads116 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202112.00131 [pdf]


刁昕玥; 关分海; 王轶杰; 秦雨浩; 秦智; 郭栋; 吴强华; 司大伟; 赵暄; 肖圣; 张耀鹏; 魏向伦; 邹海川; 杨贺润; 马朋; 胡荣江; 段利敏; Artur, Dobrowolski; Krzysztof, Pomorski; 肖志刚
Subjects: Physics >> Nuclear Physics

我们研究了在CSHINE上重建$ 25 MeV/u ^{86}Kr +^{208}Pb$ 反应中快裂变事件的方法。裂变碎片由三个大面积平行板雪崩计数器进行探测,它可以提供碎片的位置和到达的时间信息。起始时间信息由回旋加速器的高频信号给出。我们利用两个裂变碎片的速度,重建了裂变事件。裂变碎片的速度分布和方位差的展宽均随折叠角的增大而减小,这与快速裂变发生的图像一致。同时,裂变轴的各向异性角分布也一致地揭示了裂变事件的动力学特征。

submitted time 2021-12-25 Hits2617Downloads135 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202109.00023 [pdf]

Spectrum Broadening due to Nonselective Linear Absorption

Zhang, Xingchu ; She, Weilong
Subjects: Physics >> Electromagnetism, Optics, Acoustics, Heat Transfer, Classical Mechanics, and Fluid Dynamics

The position and linewidth of emission spectrum reflect the physical information inside an object observed. So keeping them from distortion is very important in the measurement of spectrum. However, the emission spectra are not always kept their forms. We let the near-infrared emission of a sodium lamp pass through a nonselective linear absorbing filter and then observe the emission spectrum. It is found that the spectral lines will be broadened when the power of the emission just after the filter becomes low enough, and the lower the transmittance of the filter is, the more obvious the effect is. This is another broadening effect different from the known ones and is likely to be another independent evidence for discrete wavelet structure of classical plane light waves.

submitted time 2021-12-20 Hits6895Downloads453 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202112.00121 [pdf]

Micromagnetic simulation for probabilistic magnetization switching process of a spin-orbit true random number generator

Yi Cao; Nan Zhang
Subjects: Physics >> Condensed Matter: Electronic Structure, Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties

True random number generator (TRNG) is an important component for modern information security technologies. Among the candidates, TRNG with spin-orbit torque (SOT)-induced probabilistic magnetization switching is competitive for its advantages in anti-radiation, unlimited endurance, robust stability, and broad temperature range. However, realization of a SOT-TRNG requires intensive understanding of the magnetic dynamic process under a spin-orbit current. Here, we performed micromagnetic simulation of the SOT-induced probabilistic magnetization switching by using Mumax 3. Without thermal noise, identical magnetic moment precessions were found between repeated simulation cycles, resulting in deterministic magnetization switching. When thermal noises were taken into account, stochastic precession trails and thereby probabilistic magnetization switching were finally obtained. Our results suggest the Mumax 3 to be a practical tool for simulating the probabilistic magnetization switching behavior of a SOT-TRNG, as well as highlighting the crucial role of thermal noise during the during the simulation.

submitted time 2021-12-18 Hits2215Downloads153 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202112.00082 [pdf]


Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.

湿地生态需水量阈值是其生态系统发生质变的临界条件,一旦某阈值被超越,系统的某些 物质平衡关系、功能、健康就会受到影响,而月尺度的湿地生态需水量阈值研究有助于水资源优化 配置。针对博斯腾湖小湖区芦苇沼泽镶嵌交错明水塘道的景观结构,结合遥感数据同步获取大范 围数据的优势,利用长时间序列的水面面积频率分析,确定月尺度最小、中等和理想状态的小湖区 湿地明水区面积;采用蒸发皿观测值计算法,核算小湖区湿地的月尺度最小、中等和理想生态耗水量。结果表明:小湖区湿地全年月平均最小、中等和理想的生态水面面积为 14.47 km2、21.56 km2、 26.75 km2;小湖区湿地生长季 3—9 月最小生态需水量为 0.22×108 m3、0.35×108 m3、0.44×108 m3、0.51×108 m3、0.39×108 m3、0.41×108 m3、0.28×108 m3,其中 6 月最大,3 月最小,小湖区湿地年最小生态 需水量约为 3.02×108 m3;如若同时满足小湖区湿地生态目标芦苇生长所需动态水位,3—9 月最小 生态需水量为 0.40×108 m3、0.52×108 m3、0.79×108 m3、0.86×108 m3、2.31×108 m3、0.41×108 m3、0.28×108 m3,其中 7 月最大,9 月最小,小湖区湿地年最小生态需水量约为 5.99×108 m3。本研究计算结果可用于小湖区湿地年、月尺度来水分配及出水调控,有利于提高区域水资源利用效率,确保小湖生态可持续发展。

submitted time 2021-12-14 From cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits2507Downloads115 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202112.00084 [pdf]

THz permeability of FePt nanowire

Han, Mangui; Meng, Sen
Subjects: Physics >> General Physics: Statistical and Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Information, etc.


submitted time 2021-12-14 Hits2706Downloads189 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202111.00014 [pdf]


李建花; 解佳佳; 庄锦英
Subjects: Psychology >> Cognitive Psychology

来自进化心理学的理论及研究结果提示,女性性激素可能是情景记忆的重要影响因素,但是,具体机制尚不清晰。本研究以女性生理周期性激素水平的自然变化构成的两个时期(卵泡后期、黄体中期)为自变量,利用“What-Where-When Task”情景记忆任务(实验1),结合事件相关电位(event-related potential,ERP)技术(实验2),探讨生理周期不同阶段完成情景记忆任务的成绩及其可能的内在机制。实验一招募生理周期稳定的33名女性为被试,在卵泡后期和黄体中期各参加一次实验,随机顺序依次完成O任务(仅记忆物品,object)、P任务(仅记忆物品位置,position)、OO任务(记忆物品及其呈现顺序,object + order,)、OP任务(记忆物品及其呈现位置,object + position)以及PO任务(记忆物品呈现位置及顺序,position + order)。结果发现,在完成PO任务时,黄体中期的回忆正确率显著高于卵泡后期。实验二借用事件相关电位技术,进一步探究生理周期影响情景记忆PO任务的原因,结果发现,黄体中期额叶脑区的P300以及LPC波的振幅显著大于卵泡后期,且完成PO任务时的感受性与右侧额叶P300振幅显著正相关。基于上述ERP的结果,可以认为,黄体中期在PO任务上的好成绩可能得益于显著增强的认知控制能力,这一解释符合前人研究结论。总之,本研究发现:生理周期对情景记忆中客体的空间位置与时间顺序整合的记忆产生显著影响,黄体中期的记忆效果显著好于卵泡后期,可能是因为该时期显著增强的认知控制能力。本研究有望为理解影响情景记忆的因素提供新的视角。

submitted time 2021-11-13 Hits6195Downloads283 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202110.00065 [pdf]


Subjects: Physics >> The Physics of Elementary Particles and Fields

提出马赫思想的一种表述,并讨论了压强对时空弯曲的影响,由此得到如下一些结果。第一,有一部分类星体由于其非宇宙学红移而成为伪类星体;第二,对暗物质存在的部分依据如旋涡星系转动曲线、宇宙结构形成等给出非暗物质的理解;第三,预期沿银河系径向高速运动粒子静惯性质量会发生改变、地球绕日轨道和月球绕地轨道会出现微小畸变;第四,计算表明孤立恒星、星系和星系团可能具有广义相对论二十余倍的引力透镜效应;第五, 黑洞奇点有可能避免;第六,给出宇宙一种周期性演化模型。在这种模型中虽然宇宙演化的发散奇点不可能避免,但测地线完备可能保持,并且不需要暗能量当今宇宙仍可能处于加速膨胀阶段。该模型不存在视界疑难和平直性疑难。最后,探讨了引力波源是否可多信道探测的问题。

submitted time 2021-10-16 Hits5015Downloads298 Comment 0

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