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1. chinaXiv:201708.00334 [pdf]

New findings of galeaspids (Agnatha) from the Lower Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan, China

LIU Yu-Hai; GAI Zhi-Kun; ZHU Min
Subjects: Geosciences >> Geology

New findings of galeaspids (Agnatha) including Altigibbaspis huiqingae gen. et sp. nov., an indeterminate polybranchiaspid, Eugaleaspis changi, and Nanpanaspis microculus are described from the lower part of the Xishancun Formation (early Lochkovian, Early Devonian) near the northeast entrance of Liaokuo Park, Qujing City, Yunnan Province, China. The Polybranchiaspis-like new genus is characterized by a blade-like median dorsal ridge on the dorsal side of head-shield. The morphological disparity of the median dorsal ridge and spine in galeaspids suggests that these structures functioned more than providing a hydrodynamic stability. We assume that a high upright and compressed spine may render galeaspid fishes an apparently larger size as seen by a predator, and a blade-like median dorsal ridge may accomplish a defense against the claws of large sea scorpions. Nanpanaspis is peculiar in bearing two short laterally projecting processes on each side of the head-shield, and its phylogenetic relationship is discussed based on different interpretations on the homology of these processes. Considering the unique morphology of Nanpanaspis, and its early occurrence among the Huananaspiformes, we assign Nanpanaspis in the monogeneric family Nanpanaspidae to represent an early branch of the Huananaspiformes. 本文描述了云南曲靖早泥盆世西山村组盔甲鱼类(无颌类)的新发现,包括一新属、新种——惠清驼背鱼(Altigibbaspis huiqingae gen. et sp. nov.), 一件属种未定的多鳃鱼科标本,以及张氏真盔甲鱼(Eugaleaspis changi)和小眼南盘鱼(Nanpanaspis microculus)的新材料。驼背鱼在很多方面跟多鳃鱼都非常相似,但头甲背面具一特征性的驼背状隆起,其上有一刀刃状的中背脊。中背脊和中背棘在盔甲鱼类里的形态分异度表明:它们除了能够提供游泳方向稳定性外,可能衍生出了一些附加的功能,例如直立高耸的中背棘能使盔甲鱼在捕食者眼里具有了恐吓性,刀刃状的中背脊可能也起到一些防御的作用。南盘鱼头甲侧缘具有两对非常奇特的侧向延伸的突起;通过对这两对侧突同源性的比较,讨论了南盘鱼的潜在系统分类位置。鉴于南盘鱼奇特的形态,以及它在华南鱼目中相对较早的出现时代,建议暂时把南盘鱼放到一个单属科南盘鱼科,代表了华南鱼目早期分出来的一个支系。

submitted time 2017-08-24 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3315Downloads1604 Comment 0

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