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1. chinaXiv:201605.01830 [pdf]

Flood and drought tolerance in rice: opposite but may coexist

A. N. M. Rubaiyath Bin Rahman; Jianhua Zhang
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Plant ecology, plant geography

Flood and drought are the two most prevalent abiotic stresses causing major yield reduction globally. In the last decade, molecular mechanisms of flood tolerance in rice have been revealed with successful release of flash flood-tolerant varieties to farmers. However, despite extensive research, the breakthrough of drought tolerance is still to come. In this review, we have examined the distribution and population types of drought-and flood-tolerant rice accessions, synthesized recent progresses of flood and drought tolerance research, and proposed a hypothesis that the molecular mechanisms of both drought and flood tolerance may be regulated by cross-talked pathways and coexist in aus subpopulation.We conclude that it is the time to mine the key regulator(s) of drought tolerance through de novo assembly of drought-tolerant aus landrace(s) with other molecular approaches and develop drought-tolerant rice using genome manipulation weaponry.

submitted time 2016-05-30 Hits13310Downloads2109 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:201605.01827 [pdf]

Cellulose synthesis genes CESA6 and CSI1 are important for salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis

Shuang-Shuang Zhang; Le Sun; Xinran Dong; Sun-Jie Lu; Weidong Tian; Jian-Xiang Liu
Subjects: Biology >> Botany >> Botany research, experiment, plant evolution & development

S.S.Z. performed the research with the help of L.S., X.D. and S.J.L. W.T. supervised the bioinformatics analysis. S.S.Z. and J.X.L. designed the experiment, analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript.

submitted time 2016-05-27 Hits11209Downloads1381 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:201605.01819 [pdf]

Wide-bandwidth drift-scan pulsar surveys of globular clusters: application to early science observations with FAST

Lei, Zhang; George, Hobbs ; Di, Li; Duncan, Lorimer; Jie, Zhang; Meng, Yu; You-Ling, Yue; Pei, Wang; Zhi-Chen Pan; Shi, Dai
Subjects: Astronomy >> Astrophysical processes

The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) will begin its early-science operations during 2016. Drift-scan pulsar surveys will be carried out during this period using an ultra-wide-band receiver system (covering ? 270 to 1620 MHz). We describe a method for accounting for the changes in the telescope beam shape and the pulsar parameters when searching for pulsars over such a wide bandwidth. We applied this method to simulated data sets of pulsars in globular clusters that are visible to FAST and found that a representative observation would have a sensitivity of ? 40 ?Jy. Our results showed that a single drift-scan (lasting less than a minute) is likely to find at least one pulsar for observations of four globular clusters. Repeated observations will increase the likely number of detections. We found that pulsars in ?16 clusters are likely to be found if the data from 100 drift-scan observations of each cluster are incoherently combined.

submitted time 2016-05-23 Hits7929Downloads1433 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:201605.01812 [pdf]

On The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture for CM Elliptic Curves over Q

Subjects: Mathematics >> Algebra and Number Theory

For CM elliptic curve over rational field with analytic rank one, for any potential good ordinary prime p, not dividing the number of roots of unity in the complex multiplication field, we show the p-part of its Shafarevich-Tate group has order predicted by the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture.

submitted time 2016-05-19 Hits5019Downloads2083 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:201605.01808 [pdf]

Significant Expansion of Fluorescent Protein Sensing Ability through the Genetic Incorporation of Superior Photo-Induced Electron-Transfer Quenchers

Liu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Li; Li, Jiasong; Wang, Li; Zhou, Qing; Lv, Xiaoxuan; Gong, Weimin; Wang, Jiangyun; Lu, Yi; Lu, Yi; Yu, Yang
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is ubiquitous for photosynthesis and fluorescent sensor design. However, genetically coded PET sensors are underdeveloped, due to the lack of methods to site-specifically install PET probes on proteins. Here we describe a family of acid and Mn(III) turn-on fluorescent protein (FP) sensors, named iLovU, based on PET and the genetic incorporation of superior PET quenchers in the fluorescent flavoprotein iLov. Using the iLovU PET sensors, we monitored the cytoplasmic acidification process, and achieved Mn(III) fluorescence sensing for the first time. The iLovU sensors should be applicable for studying pH changes in living cells, monitoring biogentic Mn(III) in the environment, and screening for efficient manganese peroxidase, which is highly desirable for lignin degradation and biomass conversion. Our work establishes a platform for many more protein PET sensors, facilitates the de novo design of metalloenzymes harboring redox active residues, and expands our ability to probe protein conformational dynamics.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits4190Downloads2056 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:201605.01807 [pdf]

7T Transmit/Receive Arrays Using ICE Decoupling for Human Head MR Imaging

Yan, Xinqiang; Feng, Baotong; Ma, ChuangXin; Wei, Long; Yan, Xinqiang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xue, Rong
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

In designing large-sized volume type phased array coils for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields, e.g., 7T, minimizing electromagnetic coupling among array elements is technically challenging. A new decoupling method based on induced current compensation or elimination (ICE) for a microstrip line planar array has recently been proposed. In this study, an eight-channel transmit/receive volume array with ICE-decoupled loop elements was built and investigated to demonstrate its feasibility and robustness for human head imaging at 7T. Isolation between adjacent loop elements was better than - 25 dB with a human head load. The worst-case of the isolation between all of the elements was about - 17.5 dB. All of the MRI experiments were performed on a 7T whole-body human MR scanner. Images of the phantom and human head were acquired and g-factor maps were measured and calculated to evaluate the performance of the coil array. Compared with the conventional capacitively decoupled array, the ICE-decoupled array demonstrated improved parallel imaging ability and had a higher SNR. The experimental results indicate that the transceiver array design with ICE decoupling technique might be a promising solution to designing high performance transmit/receive coil arrays for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits4139Downloads1933 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:201605.01806 [pdf]

Polymer-Ag Nanocomposites with Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Bacterial Infection

Mei, Lin; Lu, Zhentan; Zhang, Xinge; Li, Chaoxing; Jia, Yanxia; Jia, Yanxia
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Herein, a nontoxic nanocomposite is synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a cationic polymer displaying strong antimicrobial activity against bacterial infection. These nanocomposites with a large concentration of positive charge promote their adsorption to bacterial membranes through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the synthesized nanocomposites with polyvalent and synergistic antimicrobial effects can effectively kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance. Morphological changes obtained by transmission electron microscope observation show that these nanocomposites can cause leakage and chaos of intracellular contents. Analysis of the antimicrobial mechanism confirms that the lethal action of nanocomposites against the bacteria started with disruption of the bacterial membrane, subsequent cellular internalization of the nanopartides, and inhibition of intracellular enzymatic activity. This novel antimicrobial material with good cytocompatibility promotes healing of infected wounds in diabetic rats, and has a promising future in the treatment of other infectious diseases.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits4164Downloads2033 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:201605.01805 [pdf]

Attention-Dependent Early Cortical Suppression Contributes to Crowding

Chen, Juan; He, Yingchen; Zhu, Ziyun; Peng, Yujia; Zhang, Xilin; Fang, Fang; Chen, Juan; He, Yingchen; Zhu, Ziyun; Peng, Yujia; Zhang, Xilin; Fang, Fang; Fang, Fang; Fang, Fang; Zhou, Tiangang
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics >> Neurosciences

Crowding, the identification difficulty for a target in the presence of nearby flankers, is ubiquitous in spatial vision and is considered a bottleneck of object recognition and visual awareness. Despite its significance, the neural mechanisms of crowding are still unclear. Here, we performed event-related potential and fMRI experiments to measure the cortical interaction between the target and flankers in human subjects. We found that the magnitude of the crowding effect was closely associated with an early suppressive cortical interaction. The cortical suppression was reflected in the earliest event-related potential component (C1), which originated in V1, and in the BOLD signal in V1, but not other higher cortical areas. Intriguingly, spatial attention played a critical role in the manifestation of the suppression. These findings provide direct and converging evidence that attention-dependent V1 suppression contributes to crowding at a very early stage of visual processing.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits3979Downloads2219 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:201605.01804 [pdf]

An Iron-Containing Dodecameric Heptosyltransferase Family Modifies Bacterial Autotransporters in Pathogenesis

Lu, Qiuhe; Yao, Qing; Xu, Yue; Li, Lin; Li, Shan; Gao, Wenqing; Niu, Miao; Chen, She; Shao, Feng; Xu, Yue; Liu, Yanhua; Liu, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yanhua; Liu, Xiaoyun; Sharon, Michal; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Zamyatina, Alla; Shao, Feng; Shao, Feng
Subjects: Biology >> Biophysics

Autotransporters deliver virulence factors to the bacterial surface by translocating an effector passenger domain through a membrane-anchored barrel structure. Although passenger domains are diverse, those found in enteric bacteria autotransporters, including AIDA-I in diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) and TibA in enterotoxigenic E. coli, are commonly glycosylated. We show that AIDA-I is heptosylated within the bacterial cytoplasm by autotransporter adhesin heptosyltransferase (AAH) and its paralogue AAH2. AIDA-I heptosylation determines DAEC adhesion to host cells. AAH/AAH2 define a bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferase (BAHT) family that contains ferric ion and adopts a dodecamer assembly. Structural analyses of the heptosylated TibA passenger domain reveal 35 heptose conjugates forming patterned and solenoid-like arrays on the surface of a beta helix. Additionally, CARC, the AIDA-like autotransporter from Citrobacter rodentium, is essential for colonization in mice and requires heptosylation by its cognate BAHT. Our study establishes a bacterial glycosylation system that regulates virulence and is essential for pathogenesis.

submitted time 2016-05-18 Hits4037Downloads1937 Comment 0

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