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1. chinaXiv:202205.00018 [pdf]

Spatial variability between glacier mass balance and environmental factors in the High Mountain Asia

ZHANG Zhen; GU Zhengnan; Hu Kehong; XU Yangyang; ZHAO Jinbiao
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Environmentology

Abstract: High Mountain Asia (HMA) region contains the world's highest peaks and the largest concentration of glaciers except for the polar regions, making it sensitive to global climate change. In the context of global warming, most glaciers in the HMA show various degrees of negative mass balance, while some show positive or near-neutral balance. Many studies have reported that spatial heterogeneity in glacier mass balance is strongly related to a combination of climate parameters. However, this spatial heterogeneity may vary according to the dynamic patterns of climate change at regional or continental scale. The reasons for this may be related to non-climatic factors. To understand the mechanisms by which spatial heterogeneity forms, it is necessary to establish the relationships between glacier mass balance and environmental factors related to topography and morphology. In this study, climate, topography, morphology, and other environmental factors are investigated. Geodetector and linear regression analysis were used to explore the driving factors of spatial variability of glacier mass balance in the HMA by using elevation change data during 2000–2016. The results show that the coverage of supraglacial debris is an essential factor affecting the spatial heterogeneity of glacier mass balance, followed by climatic factors and topographic factors, especially the median elevation and slope in the HMA. There are some differences among mountain regions and the explanatory power of climatic factors on the spatial differentiation of glacier mass balance in each mountain region is weak, indicating that climatic background of each mountain region is similar. Therefore, under similar climatic backgrounds, the median elevation and slope are most correlated with glacier mass balance. The interaction of various factors is enhanced, but no unified interaction factor plays a primary role. Topographic and morphological factors also control the spatial heterogeneity of glacier mass balance by influencing its sensitivity to climate change. In conclusion, geodetector method provides an objective framework for revealing the factors controlling glacier mass balance.

submitted time 2022-05-09 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits64Downloads26 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202203.00075 [pdf]

Effects of vegetation near-soil-surface factors on runoff and sediment reduction in typical grasslands on the Loess Plateau, China

LI Panpan; WANG Bing; YANG Yanfen; LIU Guobin
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

Abstract: Vegetation near-soil-surface factors can protect topsoil from erosion, however, their contributions to the reduction of soil erosion, especially under natural rainfall events, have not been systematically recognized. This study was performed to quantify the effects of near-soil-surface factors on runoff and sediment under natural rainfall events on grasslands dominated by Bothriochloa ischaemum (Linn.) Keng (BI grassland) and Artemisia gmelinii Thunb. (AG grassland) in two typical watersheds on the Loess Plateau, China in 2018. By successive removal of the plant canopy, litter, biological soil crusts (BSCs) and plant roots, we established five treatments including plant roots, plant roots+BSCs, plant roots+BSCs+litter, intact grassland and bare land in each grassland type. In total, twenty runoff plots (5 m×3 m) with similar slopes and aspects were constructed in the two types of grasslands. Results showed that plant canopy, litter and roots reduced runoff, while BSCs, which swelled in the presence of water, increased runoff. In contrast, all of these factors reduced sediment yield. In addition, the reductions in runoff and sediment yield increased with I30 (maximum 30-min rainfall intensity) for each vegetation near-soil-surface factor except for BSCs. Among these factors, plant canopy had the largest contribution to runoff reduction, accounting for 48.8% and 39.9% in the BI and AG grasslands, respectively. The contributions of these vegetation near-soil-surface factors to sediment yield reduction were similar (21.3%–29.9%) in the two types of grasslands except for BSCs in the AG grassland (10.3%). The total reduction in runoff in the BI grassland (70.8%) was greater than that in the AG grassland (53.1%), while the reduction in sediment yield was almost the same in both grasslands (97.4% and 96.7%). In conclusion, according to the effects of different vegetation near-soil-surface factors on runoff and sediment production, our results may provide more complete insight and scientific basis into the effects of various vegetation related factors in controlling soil erosion.

submitted time 2022-03-24 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits283Downloads185 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202203.00078 [pdf]

Ecosystem service values of gardens in the Yellow River Basin, China

GE Qianqian; XU Wenjie; FU Meichen; HAN Yingxin; AN Guoqiang; XU Yuetong
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

Studies on the ecosystem service value (ESV) of gardens are critical for informing evidence- based land management practices based on an understanding of the local ecosystem. By analyzing equivalent value factors (EVFs), this paper evaluated the values of 11 ecosystem services of gardens in the Yellow River Basin of China in 2019. High-precision land use survey data were used to improve the accuracy of the land use classification, garden areas, and spatial distribution of the ESVs of gardens. The results showed that garden ecosystem generally had high ESVs, especially in terms of the ESV of food production, which is worthy of further research and application to the practice of land use planning and management. Specifically, the value of one standard EVF of ecosystem services in 2019 was 3587.04 CNY/(hm2a), and the ESV of food production of gardens was much higher than that of croplands. Garden ecosystem provided an ESV of 1348.66×108 CNY/a in the Yellow River Basin. The areas with the most concentrated ESVs of gardens were located in four regions: downstream in the Shandong-Henan zone along the Yellow River, mid-stream in the Shanxi-Shaanxi zone along the Yellow River, the Weihe River Basin, and upstream in the Qinghai-Gansu-Ningxia-Inner Mongolia zone along the Yellow River. The spatial correlation of the ESVs in the basin was significant (global spatial autocorrelation index Moran's I=0.464), which implied that the characteristics of high ESVs adjacent to high ESVs and low ESVs adjacent to low ESVs are prominent. In the Yellow River Basin, the contribution of the ESVs of gardens to the local environment and economy varied across regions. We also put forward some suggestions for promoting the construction of ecological civilization in the Yellow River Basin. The findings of this study provide important contributions to the research of ecosystem service evaluation in the Yellow River Basin.

submitted time 2022-03-24 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits326Downloads213 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202203.00079 [pdf]

Spatiotemporal changes of eco-environmental quality based on remote sensing-based ecological index in the Hotan Oasis, Xinjiang

YAO Kaixuan; Abudureheman HALIKE; CHEN Limei; WEI Qianqian
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Other Disciplines of Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences

Abstract: The rapid economic development that the Hotan Oasis in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China has undergone in recent years may face some challenges in its ecological environment. Therefore, an analysis of the spatiotemporal changes in ecological environment of the Hotan Oasis is important for its sustainable development. First, we constructed an improved remote sensing-based ecological index (RSEI) in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020 on the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform and implemented change detection for their spatial distribution. Second, we performed a spatial autocorrelation analysis on RSEI distribution map and used land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) data to analyze the reasons of RSEI changes. Finally, we investigated the applicability of improved RSEI to arid area. The results showed that mean of RSEI rose from 0.41 to 0.50, showing a slight upward trend. During the 30-a period, 2.66% of the regions improved significantly, 10.74% improved moderately and 32.21% improved slightly, respectively. The global Moran's I were 0.891, 0.889, 0.847 and 0.777 for 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020, respectively, and the local indicators of spatial autocorrelation (LISA) distribution map showed that the high-high cluster was mainly distributed in the central part of the Hotan Oasis, and the low-low cluster was mainly distributed in the outer edge of the oasis. RSEI at the periphery of the oasis changes from low to high with time, with the fragmentation of RSEI distribution within the oasis increasing. Its distribution and changes are predominantly driven by anthropologic factors, including the expansion of artificial oasis into the desert, the replacement of desert ecosystems by farmland ecosystems, and the increase in the distribution of impervious surfaces. The improved RSEI can reflect the eco-environmental quality effectively of the oasis in arid area with relatively high applicability. The high efficiency exhibited with this approach makes it convenient for rapid, high frequency and macroscopic monitoring of eco-environmental quality in study area.

submitted time 2022-03-24 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits293Downloads183 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202203.00035 [pdf]

Dieback intensity but not functional and taxonomic diversity indices predict forest productivity in different management conditions: Evidence from a semi-arid oak forest ecosystem

Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Environmentology

The relationships between different aspects of diversity (taxonomic, structural and functional) and the aboveground biomass (AGB) as a major component of global carbon balance have been studied extensively but rarely under the simultaneous influence of forest dieback and management. In this study, we investigate the relationships between taxonomic, functional and structural diversity of woody species (trees and shrubs) and AGB along a gradient of dieback intensity (low, moderate, high and no dieback as control) under two contrasted management conditions (protection by central government vs. traditional management by natives) in a semi-arid oak (Quercus brantii Lindl.) forest ecosystem. AGB was estimated and taxonomic diversity, community weighted average (CWM) and functional divergence indices were produced. We found that the aerial biomass was significantly higher in the intensively used area (14.57 (±1.60) t/hm2) than in the protected area (8.70 (±1.05) t/hm2) due to persistence of some large trees but with decreasing values along the dieback intensity gradient in both areas. CWM of height (H), leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC) were also higher in the traditional managed area than in the protected area. In contrast, in the protected area, the woody species diversity was higher and the inter-specific competition was more intense, explaining a reduced H, biomass and LDMC. Contrary to the results of CWM, none of the functional diversity traits (FDvar) was affected by dieback intensity and only FDvar values of LNC, leaf phosphorus content (LPC) and LDMC were influenced by management. We also found significantly positive linear relationships of AGB with CWM and FDvar indices in the protected area, and with taxonomic and structural diversity indices in the traditional managed area. These results emphasize that along a dieback intensity gradient, the leaf functional traits are efficient predictors in estimating the AGB in protected forests, while taxonomic and structural indices provide better results in forests under a high human pressure. Finally, species identity of the dominant species (i.e., Brant's oak) proves to be the main driver of AGB, supporting the selection effect hypothesis.

submitted time 2022-03-15 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1142Downloads221 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202203.00036 [pdf]

Modelling the biological invasion of Prosopis juliflora using geostatistical-based bioclimatic variables under climate change in arid zones of south-western Iran

Mohadeseh AMIRI; Mosfata TARKESH; Mohammad SHAFIEZADEH
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Environmentology

Invasive species have been the focus of ecologists due to their undesired impacts on the environment. The extent and rapid increase in invasive plant species is recognized as a natural cause of global-biodiversity loss and degrading ecosystem services. Biological invasions can affect ecosystems across a wide spectrum of bioclimatic conditions. Understanding the impact of climate change on species invasion is crucial for sustainable biodiversity conservation. In this study, the possibility of mapping the distribution of invasive Prosopis juliflora (Swartz) DC. was shown using present background data in Khuzestan Province, Iran. After removing the spatial bias of background data by creating weighted sampling bias grids for the occurrence dataset, we applied six modelling algorithms (generalized additive model (GAM), classification tree analysis (CTA), random forest (RF), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and ensemble model) to predict invasion distribution of the species under current and future climate conditions for both optimistic (RCP2.6) and pessimistic (RCP8.5) scenarios for the years 2050 and 2070, respectively. Predictor variables including weighted mean of CHELSA (climatologies at high resolution for the Earth's land surface areas)-bioclimatic variables and geostatistical-based bioclimatic variables (1979–2020), physiographic variables extracted from shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM) and some human factors were used in modelling process. To avoid causing a biased selection of predictors or model coefficients, we resolved the spatial autocorrelation of presence points and multi-collinearity of the predictors. As in a conventional receiver operating characteristic (ROC), the area under curve (AUC) is calculated using presence and absence observations to measure the probability and the two error components are weighted equally. All models were evaluated using partial ROC at different thresholds and other statistical indices derived from confusion matrix. Sensitivity analysis showed that mean diurnal range (Bio2) and annual precipitation (Bio12) explained more than 50%of the changes in the invasion distribution and played a pivotal role in mapping habitat suitability of P. juliflora. At all thresholds, the ensemble model showed a significant difference in comparison with single model. However, MaxEnt and RF outperformed the others models. Under climate change scenarios, it is predicted that suitable areas for this invasive species will increase in Khuzestan Province, and increasing climatically suitable areas for the species in future will facilitate its future distribution. These findings can support the conservation planning and management efforts in ecological engineering and be used in formulating preventive measures.

submitted time 2022-03-15 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1189Downloads221 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202203.00038 [pdf]

Assessment of river basin habitat quality and its relationship with disturbance factors: A case study of the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China

HE Bing; CHANG Jianxia; GUO Aijun; WANG Yimin; WANG Yan; LI Zhehao
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

The status of regional biodiversity is determined by habitat quality. The effective assessment of habitat quality can help balance the relationship between economic development and biodiversity conservation. Therefore, this study used the InVEST model to conduct a dynamic evaluation of the spatial and temporal changes in habitat quality of the Tarim River Basin in southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China by calculating the degradation degree levels for habitat types that were caused by threat factors from 1990 to 2018 (represented by four periods of 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018). Specifically, we used spatial autocorrelation analysis and Getis-Ord G* i analysis to divide the study area into three heterogeneous units in terms of habitat quality: cold spot areas, hot spot areas and random areas. Hemeroby index, population density, gross domestic product (GDP), altitude and distance from water source (DWS) were then chosen as the main disturbance factors. Linear correlation and spatial regression models were subsequently used to analyze the influences of disturbance factors on habitat quality. The results demonstrated that the overall level of habitat quality in the TRB was poor, showing a continuous degradation state. The intensity of the negative correlation between habitat quality and Hemeroby index was proven to be strongest in cold spot areas, hot spot areas and random areas. The spatial lag model (SLM) was better suited to spatial regression analysis due to the spatial dependence of habitat quality and disturbance factors in heterogeneous units. By analyzing the model, Hemeroby index was found to have the greatest impact on habitat quality in the studied four periods (1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018). The research results have potential guiding significance for the formulation of reasonable management policies in the TRB as well as other river basins in arid areas.

submitted time 2022-03-15 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1177Downloads216 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202104.00124 [pdf]


韩永贵; 韩磊; 黄晓宇; 高阳
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

饱和水汽压差是土壤-植被-大气连续体水分传输过程的关键影响因素,在全球气候变化背景下,预测西北地区饱和水汽压差,对于植被恢复和农林业气象灾害风险评估具有重要的现实意义。基于西北五省(区)1990—2019年月饱和水汽压差值,采用趋势分析和小波分析等方法研究了西北地区饱和水汽压差年际变化特征和周期性变化规律;采用指数模型和ARIMA模型,筛选最佳样本步长和预测步长,对西北地区饱和水汽压差进行模拟和预测。结果表明:(1)西北五省(区)中,新疆年均饱和水汽压差最高,其次为宁夏、陕西、甘肃和青海;近30 a整体上西北地区饱和水汽压差呈上升趋势,其中宁夏和新疆饱和水汽压差上升幅度最大,分别为0.036 kPa·(10a)-1和0.033kPa·(10a)-1,其次为甘肃[0.026 kPa·(10a)-1]、青海[0.021 kPa·(10a)-1]和陕西[0.012 kPa·(10a)-1];(2)西北各省(区),16 a尺度周期对小波方差贡献最大,为饱和水汽压差变化的主周期。此外,陕西、甘肃和新疆还存在24~27 a的周期特征,方差贡献较小;(3)相对于指数模型,ARIMA模型均方根误差平均减少42.3%,决定系数R2平均提高11.1%,Nash-Sutclife效率系数平均提高17.7%,有效提高了饱和水汽压差预测精度;(4)未来一段时间内,西北各地区饱和水汽压差均存在不同程度的升高趋势,以宁夏和新疆地区的饱和水汽压差增幅最为明显,分别为9.5%和8.9%。

submitted time 2021-04-23 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1798Downloads709 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202103.00037 [pdf]

机械沙障抗拉力学特性研究 ——以临策铁路沿线高立式和平铺式沙障为例

贾光普; 左合君; 闫敏; 韩雪莹; 姚云峰
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Other Disciplines of Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences

为揭示机械沙障抗拉力学特性,优选合适的阻沙固沙材料,利用TY8000系列伺服控制机对试验对象进行纵向拉伸试验。结果表明:当孔隙度为均一型(全疏型或全密型)时,不同材料沙障的试样宽度与抗拉力均呈幂函数正相关,与抗拉强度呈幂函数负相关,其抗拉力与伸长量变化曲线均为单峰曲线;当材料相同时,不同孔隙度沙障的试样宽度与抗拉力均呈幂函数正相关,与抗拉强度呈幂函数负相关,其抗拉力与伸长量变化曲线类型不同,即均一型沙障的抗拉力均为单峰曲线,而混合型(上疏下密型)沙障则为双峰曲线;当试样宽度大于4 cm时,上疏下密伸长量>全密型伸长量>全疏型伸长量,其大小分别为(141.23±2.56)、(103.46±3.20)mm和(63.50±1.20)mm;在测定过程中,试样宽度大的实测值小于试样宽度小的实测值,由于实际过程中局部丝网受力不均所致,出现了“颈缩”现象。建议在野外布设时多使用上疏下密型沙障,并根据当地的实际风况,首先应对沙障材料进行室内抗拉力学特性的预实验,避免由经验化引起的铺设问题,以达到防风固沙效益的最大化。

submitted time 2021-03-02 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1873Downloads996 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202103.00038 [pdf]

新疆冬小麦不同产量群体冠层光截获 与干物质分布特性分析

王立红; 张宏芝; 李剑峰; 王重; 高新; 时佳; 张跃强; 樊哲儒; 赵奇
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Other Disciplines of Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences

研究不同产量水平冬小麦群体冠层不同层次光合有效辐射(Photosynthetically Active Radiation,PAR)截获、干物质分布及产量的影响,为缩小新疆冬小麦产量差距、提高光能资源利用和高产栽培提供理论依据。试验于2018—2019年在军户和奇台两个不同试验区进行,以当地主栽品种为试验材料,采用综合管理模式模拟了超高产(SH:≥9000 kg·hm-2)、高产(HH:7500~9000 kg·hm-2)、农户(FP:6000~7500 kg·hm-2)、基础(CK:≤4500 kg·hm-2)4个产量水平。研究4个产量水平下新疆冬小麦开花期上、中、下冠层的光截获特性及干物质积累与分配特性,分析其与产量构成的相关性,探究增产途径。结果表明:产量水平高的群体在灌浆期仍能保持较高的叶面积指数(Leaf Ar?ea Index,LAI);随着产量水平的提高,冠层上、中、下层的PAR截获率和PAR截获量均提高,且总体表现为上层>中层>下层,呈现“上强下弱”的垂直分布特征,PAR透射率变化趋势与之相反;中层干物质积累量要低于上、下层干物质积累量,且上层干物质随着产量水平的升高增幅要大于中层和下层,干物质上、中、下层均与PAR截获率呈极显著相关,与籽粒产量的相关系数分别为0.97、0.90、0.78。可见花后维持较高LAI,提高光合有效辐射截获量(IPAR),增加开花后干物质积累,是实现小麦增产,缩小产量差的途径。

submitted time 2021-03-02 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1699Downloads824 Comment 0

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