Current Location:home > Browse

Institution

1. chinaXiv:202203.00075 [pdf]

Effects of vegetation near-soil-surface factors on runoff and sediment reduction in typical grasslands on the Loess Plateau, China

LI Panpan; WANG Bing; YANG Yanfen; LIU Guobin
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

Abstract: Vegetation near-soil-surface factors can protect topsoil from erosion, however, their contributions to the reduction of soil erosion, especially under natural rainfall events, have not been systematically recognized. This study was performed to quantify the effects of near-soil-surface factors on runoff and sediment under natural rainfall events on grasslands dominated by Bothriochloa ischaemum (Linn.) Keng (BI grassland) and Artemisia gmelinii Thunb. (AG grassland) in two typical watersheds on the Loess Plateau, China in 2018. By successive removal of the plant canopy, litter, biological soil crusts (BSCs) and plant roots, we established five treatments including plant roots, plant roots+BSCs, plant roots+BSCs+litter, intact grassland and bare land in each grassland type. In total, twenty runoff plots (5 m×3 m) with similar slopes and aspects were constructed in the two types of grasslands. Results showed that plant canopy, litter and roots reduced runoff, while BSCs, which swelled in the presence of water, increased runoff. In contrast, all of these factors reduced sediment yield. In addition, the reductions in runoff and sediment yield increased with I30 (maximum 30-min rainfall intensity) for each vegetation near-soil-surface factor except for BSCs. Among these factors, plant canopy had the largest contribution to runoff reduction, accounting for 48.8% and 39.9% in the BI and AG grasslands, respectively. The contributions of these vegetation near-soil-surface factors to sediment yield reduction were similar (21.3%–29.9%) in the two types of grasslands except for BSCs in the AG grassland (10.3%). The total reduction in runoff in the BI grassland (70.8%) was greater than that in the AG grassland (53.1%), while the reduction in sediment yield was almost the same in both grasslands (97.4% and 96.7%). In conclusion, according to the effects of different vegetation near-soil-surface factors on runoff and sediment production, our results may provide more complete insight and scientific basis into the effects of various vegetation related factors in controlling soil erosion.

submitted time 2022-03-24 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits305Downloads201 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202203.00078 [pdf]

Ecosystem service values of gardens in the Yellow River Basin, China

GE Qianqian; XU Wenjie; FU Meichen; HAN Yingxin; AN Guoqiang; XU Yuetong
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

Studies on the ecosystem service value (ESV) of gardens are critical for informing evidence- based land management practices based on an understanding of the local ecosystem. By analyzing equivalent value factors (EVFs), this paper evaluated the values of 11 ecosystem services of gardens in the Yellow River Basin of China in 2019. High-precision land use survey data were used to improve the accuracy of the land use classification, garden areas, and spatial distribution of the ESVs of gardens. The results showed that garden ecosystem generally had high ESVs, especially in terms of the ESV of food production, which is worthy of further research and application to the practice of land use planning and management. Specifically, the value of one standard EVF of ecosystem services in 2019 was 3587.04 CNY/(hm2a), and the ESV of food production of gardens was much higher than that of croplands. Garden ecosystem provided an ESV of 1348.66×108 CNY/a in the Yellow River Basin. The areas with the most concentrated ESVs of gardens were located in four regions: downstream in the Shandong-Henan zone along the Yellow River, mid-stream in the Shanxi-Shaanxi zone along the Yellow River, the Weihe River Basin, and upstream in the Qinghai-Gansu-Ningxia-Inner Mongolia zone along the Yellow River. The spatial correlation of the ESVs in the basin was significant (global spatial autocorrelation index Moran's I=0.464), which implied that the characteristics of high ESVs adjacent to high ESVs and low ESVs adjacent to low ESVs are prominent. In the Yellow River Basin, the contribution of the ESVs of gardens to the local environment and economy varied across regions. We also put forward some suggestions for promoting the construction of ecological civilization in the Yellow River Basin. The findings of this study provide important contributions to the research of ecosystem service evaluation in the Yellow River Basin.

submitted time 2022-03-24 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits343Downloads225 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202203.00038 [pdf]

Assessment of river basin habitat quality and its relationship with disturbance factors: A case study of the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China

HE Bing; CHANG Jianxia; GUO Aijun; WANG Yimin; WANG Yan; LI Zhehao
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

The status of regional biodiversity is determined by habitat quality. The effective assessment of habitat quality can help balance the relationship between economic development and biodiversity conservation. Therefore, this study used the InVEST model to conduct a dynamic evaluation of the spatial and temporal changes in habitat quality of the Tarim River Basin in southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China by calculating the degradation degree levels for habitat types that were caused by threat factors from 1990 to 2018 (represented by four periods of 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018). Specifically, we used spatial autocorrelation analysis and Getis-Ord G* i analysis to divide the study area into three heterogeneous units in terms of habitat quality: cold spot areas, hot spot areas and random areas. Hemeroby index, population density, gross domestic product (GDP), altitude and distance from water source (DWS) were then chosen as the main disturbance factors. Linear correlation and spatial regression models were subsequently used to analyze the influences of disturbance factors on habitat quality. The results demonstrated that the overall level of habitat quality in the TRB was poor, showing a continuous degradation state. The intensity of the negative correlation between habitat quality and Hemeroby index was proven to be strongest in cold spot areas, hot spot areas and random areas. The spatial lag model (SLM) was better suited to spatial regression analysis due to the spatial dependence of habitat quality and disturbance factors in heterogeneous units. By analyzing the model, Hemeroby index was found to have the greatest impact on habitat quality in the studied four periods (1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018). The research results have potential guiding significance for the formulation of reasonable management policies in the TRB as well as other river basins in arid areas.

submitted time 2022-03-15 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1190Downloads224 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202104.00124 [pdf]

基于指数平滑和ARIMA模型的西北地区饱和水汽压差预测

韩永贵; 韩磊; 黄晓宇; 高阳
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

饱和水汽压差是土壤-植被-大气连续体水分传输过程的关键影响因素,在全球气候变化背景下,预测西北地区饱和水汽压差,对于植被恢复和农林业气象灾害风险评估具有重要的现实意义。基于西北五省(区)1990—2019年月饱和水汽压差值,采用趋势分析和小波分析等方法研究了西北地区饱和水汽压差年际变化特征和周期性变化规律;采用指数模型和ARIMA模型,筛选最佳样本步长和预测步长,对西北地区饱和水汽压差进行模拟和预测。结果表明:(1)西北五省(区)中,新疆年均饱和水汽压差最高,其次为宁夏、陕西、甘肃和青海;近30 a整体上西北地区饱和水汽压差呈上升趋势,其中宁夏和新疆饱和水汽压差上升幅度最大,分别为0.036 kPa·(10a)-1和0.033kPa·(10a)-1,其次为甘肃[0.026 kPa·(10a)-1]、青海[0.021 kPa·(10a)-1]和陕西[0.012 kPa·(10a)-1];(2)西北各省(区),16 a尺度周期对小波方差贡献最大,为饱和水汽压差变化的主周期。此外,陕西、甘肃和新疆还存在24~27 a的周期特征,方差贡献较小;(3)相对于指数模型,ARIMA模型均方根误差平均减少42.3%,决定系数R2平均提高11.1%,Nash-Sutclife效率系数平均提高17.7%,有效提高了饱和水汽压差预测精度;(4)未来一段时间内,西北各地区饱和水汽压差均存在不同程度的升高趋势,以宁夏和新疆地区的饱和水汽压差增幅最为明显,分别为9.5%和8.9%。

submitted time 2021-04-23 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1817Downloads723 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202103.00048 [pdf]

1980—2017 年青海省地表温度时空变化特征

赵美亮; 曹广超; 曹生奎; 刘富刚; 袁杰; 张卓; 刁二龙; 付建新
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

地表温度是区域气候、农业生产及土壤养分的重要影响因素,分析地表温度的变化规律对深入了解气候变化的原因及农业生产的布局具有重要意义。基于青海省35个气象基站1980—2017年逐日地表温度、气温和风速数据,采用线性趋势分析、Mann-Kendall非参数检验、小波分析等数理统计方法对青海省地表温度的时空变化特征及其与气温、风速、海拔等因子的关系进行了研究。结果表明:(1)青海省年均地表温度呈波动上升的趋势,增温速率达0.68 ℃·(10a)-1(P<0.01),2001年发生突变;地表温度变化存在明显的季节差异,冬季地温变化速率最明显,为0.77 ℃·(10a)-1(P<0.01),其他季节差异不大;青海省年均地表温度具有4~7 a和11~16 a两种周期变化;(2)全年地表平均温度分别在青南高原和祁连山区形成2个低温区,在柴达木盆地和东部农业区形成2个高温区,且低温区的增温速率较大;(3)全年及各季地表平均温度与平均气温呈显著正相关,与风速、海拔呈显著负相关关系;(4)地表平均温度呈现出明显的垂直递减规律且海拔高的地区变暖趋势更加明显。

submitted time 2021-03-02 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits1467Downloads784 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202103.00050 [pdf]

新疆夏季行星边界层参数化方案模拟特征研究

张海亮; 李火青; 买买提艾力·买买提依明
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

行星边界层参数化方案(PBL)对天气气候和大气环境的模拟与预报具有重要影响。通过基于单柱模式(SCM)的乌鲁木齐单点理想实验,以及新疆2019年8月15—18日的一次降水天气过程的模拟检验及诊断分析,研究了YSU、ACM2、BOULAC、GBM、MYJ和QNSE 6种常用的PBL参数化方案模拟的大气比湿、位温等气象要素响应土壤湿度变化的特征。结果表明:土壤湿度增加时,使用不同PBL参数化方案模拟的低层大气都呈现出比湿增加、位温降低、边界层高度降低的显著特征;GBM、ACM2中,垂直水汽输送效率较低,大气比湿较低、位温较高、湍涡作用范围较大,降水偏漏报;QNSE、MYJ中,垂直水汽输送效率较高,大气比湿较高、位温较低,湍涡作用范围较小,降水偏空报;QNSE、MYJ模拟的2 m比湿最大;ACM2模拟的2 m比湿最小;夜间QNSE模拟的2 m温度最低;白天MYJ模拟的2m温度最高;QNSE、MYJ模拟的10 m风速最高。这些模拟特征与PBL方案水汽垂直输送效率的差异密切相关。

submitted time 2021-03-02 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits909Downloads618 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202103.00070 [pdf]

棉花陆海重组自交系群体花铃期抗旱性鉴定及评价

姜梦辉; 孙丰磊; 杨阳; 王艳艳; 曲延英; 陈全家
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

以陆地棉材料(中07)和海岛棉材料(新海20)构建的F2:6陆海重组自交系群体为试验材料,分别于2018年、2019年的7月份在石河子144团采用田间干旱胁迫的方法,在花铃期对棉花陆海重组自交系群体进行干旱胁迫处理,通过测定农艺性状和产量相关性状,采用方差分析、主成分分析、聚类分析等相结合的方式,对陆海重组自交系群体进行抗旱性鉴定及评价。由主成分分析可知,陆海重组自交系群体在干旱胁迫状态下铃数、皮棉、有效果枝数和衣分变化较为明显。根据抗旱性度量值(D 值)进行聚类,将陆海重组自交系群体材料划分为4个类群:第Ⅰ类群为抗旱型,是HL-44、HL-48、HL-13等16个株系;第Ⅱ类群为中抗旱型,是HL-21、HL-8、HL-19等19个株系;第Ⅲ类群为干旱敏感型,是HL-11、HL-12、HL-3等29个株系;第Ⅳ类群为干旱极敏感型,是HL-10、HL-18、HL-31等8个株系。并鉴定出亲本中07属于抗旱型材料,新海20属于抗旱敏感材料。同时发现群体材料中有比亲本中07抗旱性更强的株系有5个,在抗旱型类群;比亲本新海20抗旱性更敏感的株系有8份,在极敏感型类群。说明该陆海重组自交系群体在抗旱性方面不仅有亲本陆地棉和海岛棉的遗传特性,还有超越亲本的遗传特性。为今后研究海陆重组自交系群体的抗旱性提供了基础。

submitted time 2021-01-26 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits864Downloads604 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202103.00071 [pdf]

微咸水膜下滴灌对棉花生长及产量的影响

刘雪艳; 丁邦新; 白云岗; 柴仲平; 王小童
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

新疆南部地区淡水资源短缺,浅层地下咸水及灌溉排水资源相对丰富,研究淡咸水混合灌溉对棉花生长及产量的影响,以期获得一套简易的应用模式,在极端干旱年份对于缓解新疆南部棉花种植地区的干旱损失具有重要意义。以灌溉地表水(矿化度0.38~0.75 g·L-1)为对照与排水渠咸水(矿化度9.81~11.81 g·L-1)按照不同比例混合,设置6种不同梯度的灌溉水,即淡咸比1:0(对照);淡咸比4:1(处理1);淡咸比3:2(处理2);淡咸比2:3(处理3);淡咸比1:4(处理4);淡咸比0:1(处理5),对棉花进行大田灌溉试验。结果表明:(1)随着灌溉水矿化度增加,棉花的生理性状呈现下降趋势。与对照相比,处理1灌溉水对棉花生长的影响较小,棉花产量较对照下降11.85%。(2)灌溉水分生产效率随着灌溉水矿化度的升高而降低,处理1较对照减少最少。(3)不同微咸水处理下10~40 cm土壤盐分呈现累积现象,其中对照最后1次灌水后的土壤盐分较第1次灌水前增加14.08%,处理5增加最多为173.08%。灌溉水配比4:1即矿化度为2.36~3.39 g·L-1时对棉花生长、产量、灌溉水分生产效率及土壤盐分影响较小。说明在干旱缺水时期采用适当的咸淡混合灌溉方式,对于缓解区域水资源短缺,保证棉花产量具有重要的作用。

submitted time 2021-01-26 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits809Downloads533 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202103.00072 [pdf]

半干旱区箭舌豌豆播期对间作马铃薯生物量 和水分利用效率的影响

张绪成; 于显枫; 马一凡; 侯慧芝; 王红丽; 方彦杰
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

协调马铃薯与绿肥作物对水分的利用,是协同实现二者间作提高半干旱区马铃薯产量和提升耕地质量的关键。于2017—2018年在西北黄土高原半干旱区布置定位试验,间作箭舌豌豆设计6月10日(PS1)、6月26日(PS2)和7月10日(PS3)3个播期,以马铃薯单作(P)为对照,测定土壤水分、生物量、马铃薯叶片叶绿素相对含量(Soil and Plant Analyzer Development,SPAD)、冠层温度和产量等指标。结果表明,与P相比,平水年(2017年)PS1降低了马铃薯花期120~160 cm土层和块茎膨大期20~40 cm土层的土壤贮水量,PS2和PS3则增加了块茎膨大期140~200 cm、收获期0 ~ 80 cm土层的土壤贮水量;间作提高了丰水年(2018年)土壤贮水量。平水年PS1花前耗水量最高,较PS3提高了15.7%;丰水年PS3最高,较PS1增加了17.9%,但均和P、PS2无显著差异;P的花后耗水量在平水年分别较PS1、PS2 和PS3 增加了70.9%、48.6%和32.0%;PS3 的花后耗水量在丰水年分别较P、PS1 和PS2 增加了24.3%、23.1%和38.1%,均达到显著差异。PS2和PS3的地上生物量较P在2017和2018年分别增加了1.1%~12.4%和11.0%~13.2%,且PS3在平水年显著提高了水分利用效率(Water Use Efficiency, WUE)。平水年P和PS3的产量无显著差异,但显著高于PS1和PS2;丰水年P、PS2和PS3的产量无显著差异,但显著高于PS1。因此,半干旱区马铃薯间作的箭舌豌豆适宜播期在6月下旬到7月上中旬,在不降低马铃薯块茎产量的基础上增加地上部生物量,并显著提高平水年马铃薯的WUE。

submitted time 2021-01-26 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits985Downloads586 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202103.00073 [pdf]

矿井水排放湖泊沿岸土壤氮素空间分布规律的研究 ——以宁夏灵武园疙瘩湖为例

段文艳; 于小娟; 唐明; 严洁; 李鑫; 张文瑞; 盛敏
Subjects: Environmental Sciences, Resource Sciences >> Basic Disciplines of Environmental Science and Technology

为探明湖泊滨岸对矿井水中氮素的截留与缓冲作用及其与滨岸土壤氮素空间分布间的关系,以宁夏灵武市羊场湾煤矿矿井水排放湖泊——园疙瘩湖为研究对象,测定了该湖水滨区域、近岸陆域和自然区域土壤中8种氮素的含量和土壤酶的活性,分析了水滨区域和近岸陆域与自然区域相比的土壤氮素变化系数及其随距矿井水排放口距离远近的变化规律。结果表明:园疙瘩湖滨岸土壤氮素空间分布存在异质性;相比较而言,水滨区域与周边自然区域的土壤氮素分布特征差异较大,而近岸陆域与周边自然区域的差异较小;相较于无机态氮,有机态氮的空间异质性更强;各有机氮形态中,颗粒物有机氮多被截留于离岸最近的水滨区域,而氨基酸氮和可溶性有机氮则需要更为宽阔的截留区域;水滨区域对颗粒物有机氮的截留效应随着距矿井水排放口距离的增加而降低;水滨区域和近岸陆域对氨基酸氮的截留效应在1400 m内逐渐降低,而在1400 m后趋于稳定;水滨区域和近岸陆域对可溶性有机氮的截留效应与其离矿井水排放口的距离无关,这可能是因为可溶性有机氮的易溶解特性使其随水体的迁移性较强,滨岸带土壤虽在吸附和缓存可溶性有机氮中发挥了一定的作用,但其较强的迁移性致其在滨岸带土壤中的分布较为均一;滨岸土壤氮素的空间异质性与土壤酶活性无关。综上可知,湖泊滨岸土壤对矿井水中有机态氮具有截留作用,且该截留作用多发生在距矿井水排放口1400 m的滨岸带内,滨岸土壤对矿井水中氮素的截留作用亦是滨岸土壤氮素空间分布异质性的主导因素。本研究结果可为指导矿井水排放路径的设计及矿井水资源的合理开发与利用提供指导。

submitted time 2021-01-26 Cooperative journals:《干旱区研究》 Hits951Downloads620 Comment 0

12345678910  Last  Go  [37 Pages/ 363 Totals]