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1. chinaXiv:202203.00009 [pdf]

Effect of High Intensity Interval Training on Blood Glucose Control in Experimental Animal of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

谭军
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

?Objective?To explore the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood glucose control in experimental animal of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to evaluate the quality of the included studies.?Methods?literatures were obtained?by searching PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, BIOSIS Preview and Cochrane Library. Chinese literatures?were obtained through CNKI, WanFang Data, SinoMed and VIP Database; The collection and screening studies were conducted in strict accordance with inclusion/exclusion criteria. The methodological quality and reporting quality of the included studies were evaluated using SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies?(SYRCLE) and Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments guidelines 2.0(ARRIVE2.0). Outcomes,such as body weight (BW), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance?(HOMA)?were meta-analyzed and evaluated by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE).?Results?Twenty studies were included, including male mice (9) or rats (11).?T2DM models have been developed mainly in two ways: high-fat diet and/or combined with streptozotocin (STZ) injection (15 articles), genetic modification (5 articles). Exercise and interval intensity are measured using VO2 max, maximum speed and slope, with 1-4.5 minutes of exercise and 15 second -3 minutes of interval, and the training duration was 8-13 weeks with 3-5 times of training a week.?The SYRCLE’s result?was mainly uncertain;None of the single items or the single studies assessed by?ARRIVE 2.0 appeared complete. Standardized mean difference (SMD) combined the effect size of outcomes showed that compared with the sedentary control group, the heterogeneity was all large, and there?are?significant differences in FBG, HOMA.?Very low quality of all evidence assessed by GRADE.?Conclusions?The effect of HIIT on blood glucose control is clear, but the influencing factors are complex, the risk of bias is high, the quality of reporting is low, the source of heterogeneity in outcomes is complex, and the quality of evidence is extremely low, which make its reliability and validity are questioned. It is recommended to use ARRIVE2.0 as a guide to increase the integrity and transparency of research information and improve research quality through experimental protocol registration and attachments.

submitted time 2022-03-02 Hits4581Downloads628 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202108.00058 [pdf]

Metagenomic evidence for the coexistence of SARS and H1N1 in patients from 2007-2012 flu seasons

Qi Liu; Zhenglin Du; Sihui Zhu; Wenming Zhao; Hua Chen; Yongbiao Xue
Subjects: Biology >> Microbiology
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

By re-analzying public metagenomic data from 101 patients infected with influenza A virus during the 2007-2012 H1N1 flu seasons in France, we identified 22 samples with SARS-CoV sequences. In 3 of them, the SARS genome sequences could be fully assembled out of each. These sequences are highly similar (99.99% and 99.7%) to the artificially constructed recombinant 5 SARS-CoV (SARSr-CoV) strains generated by the J. Craig Venter Institute in USA. Moreover, samples from different flu seasons have different SARS-CoV strains, and the divergence between these strains cannot be explained by natural evolution. Our study also shows that retrospective studies using public metagenomic data from past major epidemic outbreaks serves as a genomic strategy for the research of origins or spread of infectious diseases.

submitted time 2021-08-11 Hits17965Downloads1981 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202107.00039 [pdf]

Tracing the origin of SARS-CoV-2: lessons learned from the past

Qihui Wang; Hua Chen; Yi Shi; Alice C. Hughes; William J. Liu; Jingkun Jiang; George F. Gao; Yongbiao Xue; Yigang Tong
Subjects: Biology >> Virology
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

新冠病毒的起源仍不清楚。了解新冠病毒如何、何时以及在何处从其天然宿主传播给人类对于预防未来由冠状病毒引发的疫情至关重要。 从与病原体无休止的战斗中吸取教训,结合目前已知的关于新冠病毒起源和中间宿主的研究数据,我们提出全球多个地点都有可能是新冠病毒的起源地。

submitted time 2021-07-28 Hits19245Downloads2269 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202104.00020 [pdf]

Bacterial and viral therapies of cancer background, mechanism and perspective

Qinglin Dong, Xiangying Xing
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

Bacterial and viral therapies of cancer are highly promising, yet their mechanisms are incompletely understood, hindering their improvement and application. In this paper, We (1) review briefly the genesis and progress of bacterial and viral therapies of cancer, (2) compare and evaluate the proposed mechanisms of bacterial and viral therapies of cancer and present the unifying mechanism that bacteria/viruses stimulate cancer cells to produce antibacterial/antiviral proteins, which also serve as the responsive cancer antigens triggering host anticancer immune response, and (3) provide a perspective on the exploitation of non-human and non-animal bacteria and viruses, particularly protist-infecting bacteria and viruses and bacterial virus (bacteriophage/phage), for cancer treatment and prevention.

submitted time 2021-04-29 Hits20692Downloads1408 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202103.00122 [pdf]

应用改良No-touch技术建立兔颈总动脉-颈外静脉内瘘模型

刘振; 王晓禾; 王加英; 张元元; 侯国存
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

目的 探索应用改良No-touch技术建立兔颈总动脉-颈外静脉内瘘模型的可能性。 方法 2021年02月08日至2021年02月22日,将10只雄性新西兰兔随机等分为实验组与假手术组。实验组在内瘘手术时不剥离静脉周围组织,即改良No-touch技术处理颈外静脉,建立颈总动脉-颈外静脉内瘘。假手术组探查到血管后不吻合血管。术后14 d使用CDU评估内瘘血管内径及血流频谱变化、苏木精 - 伊红(H-E)染色观察动静脉内瘘建立后内膜增生情况,并取兔颈外静脉血行血气分析。 结果 实验组兔均顺利成功完成动静脉内瘘手术,成功率100%。术后14 d CDU评估结果显示实验组兔颈外静脉较假手术组明显扩张(P=0.016)、收缩期峰值流速(PSV)明显增加(P=0.015)。在实验组兔内瘘动脉及流出道静脉观察到“双向血流”频谱,提示血流为螺旋层流。H-E染色结果显示,实验组兔颈外静脉内弹力膜破坏、内膜厚度较假手术组明显增加(P<0.001)。实验组兔颈外静脉血PO2较假手术组明显升高(P=0.006)。结论 应用改良No-touch技术可成功建立兔颈总动脉-颈外静脉内瘘,成功率高,重复性好,为进一步研究改良No-touch技术在动静脉内瘘手术中的应用提供理想的动物模型。

submitted time 2021-03-09 Hits12497Downloads1365 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202101.00036 [pdf]

Targeting pan-tumor antigens to activating Fcγ receptors generates a novel dendritic cell tumor vaccine

Sheng, Hui; Wnag, Pan; Zhang, Guoxiu; Zhang, Xiao; Li, Zhongjun; Zhao, Zhihui
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

Objective: Therapeutic tumor vaccines are eagerly awaited in clinic by patients with high expectations; however, very few clinically successful tumor vaccine has been developed thus far, and there remains no consensus on the generation of tumor vaccines. We hypothesized that targeted delivery of pan-tumor antigens instead of individual tumor-associated antigen (TAA) to dendritic cells via the activating receptor endocytic pathway (AREP) would provide an alternative avenue to develop potent personalized tumor vaccines. Methods: We first prepared biotin-tagged tumor antigens (B-TAgs) with mouse CT26. WT colorectal cancer cells by exploiting metabolic glycan labeling and bioorthogonal reaction methods; then, we prepared a bifunctional fusion protein containing streptavidin and a mouse IgG2a Fc fragment (SA-Fc), in which streptavidin was used for conjugation with B-TAgs, and Fc for mediating the interaction with the Fcγ receptor. Finally, conjugates (Fc-TAgs) of SA-Fc with B-TAgs were prepared based on affinity-guided noncovalent reaction. The phenotype of Fc-TAgs pulsed bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) was examined by flow cytometry. The therapeutic effects of Fc-TAgs pulsed BMDCs were observed in an established mouse CT26. WT colorectal cancer model. Results: The prepared B-TAgs covers almost all glycosylated tumor antigens. SA-Fc fusion protein exhibits biotin-binding activity as a homodimer. SA-Fc can effectively conjugate with B-TAg at a mixing ratio of 1:96 (w/w). Data of flow cytometry revealed that on Fc-TAgs pulsed BMDCs, the expression levels of surface molecules, such as CD80 and MHC II, were greatly increased. In the established murine colorectal cancer model, combination treatments with Fc-TAgs pulsed BMDCs and PD-1 blockade achieved significant therapeutic effects. Limitations: The strategy we proposed for the preparation of personalized tumor vaccine requires that the tumor be surgically removed from the patient. The rationality and validity of this strategy need to be proven by more preclinical investigations. Conclusions: The novel strategy we proposed circumvents the necessities for neoantigen prediction and provides an alternative pathway to establish a flexible system for the preparation of personalized dendritic cell tumor vaccines. In the setting of checkpoint blockade-based immunotherapy, a novel DCV would improve antitumor immunity and benefit the eradication of tumor residues within the body of the cancer patients.

submitted time 2021-01-07 Hits18869Downloads1780 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202003.00057 [pdf]

Restoration of brain consciousness ex vivo after circulatory death in pigs

Guo,Zhiyong; Sun,Chengjun; Xu,Guixing; Yin,Meixian; Zhu,Caihui; Zheng,Donghua; Zhang,Yixi; Wang,Linhe; Xie,Rongxing; Zhang,Zhiheng; Gao,Ningxin; Huang,Shanzhou; Yu,Ping; He,Shujiao; Zhao,Qiang; He,Xiaoshun
Subjects: Biology >> Neurobiology
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

在临床实践中,大脑在心脏停跳数分钟后会出现不可逆的损伤,如果30分钟后患者仍未能成功复苏,将被宣布临床死亡。最新研究显示,在心脏停跳后数小时后,猪的大脑细胞功能仍可在体外得到恢复。然而,在离体状态下意识能否恢复尚不清楚。本研究中,我们建立了用于循环停止后大脑体外复苏的常温机械灌注技术。我们发现大脑单独灌注即能维持大脑循环、细胞结构、代谢活动和脑干功能,但不能恢复大脑意识。而在肝脏的支持下,大脑整体的电活动和意识得以恢复,大脑功能至少可以维持22小时。该技术能够使热缺血50分钟的大脑恢复意识。研究结果表明,肝脏辅助下的大脑常温机械灌注技术可以在循环停止较长时间内恢复和维持大脑的意识。

submitted time 2020-03-23 Hits31379Downloads3518 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202002.00082 [pdf]

ACE2 shedding and furin abundance in target organs may influence the efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 entry

Yuanchen Ma; Yinong Huang; Tao Wang; Andy Peng Xiang; Weijun Huang
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently identified lineage B coronavirus, causing rapid worldwide outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Despite genetically closed to SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 seems to possess enhanced infectivity and subtle different clinical features, which may hamper the early screening of suspected patients as well as the control of virus transmission. Unfortunately, there are few tools to predict the potential target organ damage and possible clinical manifestations caused by such novel coronavirus. To solve this problem, we investigate the potential host cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 through bioinformatics. Using the online single-cell sequence datasets, we analyze the expression of major receptor in host cells that mediates the virus entry, including angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and its co-expressed membrane endopeptidases. The results indicated the differential expression of ADAM10 and ADAM17 might contribute to the ACE2 shedding and affect the membrane ACE2 abundance. We further confirm a putative furin-cleavage site reported recently in the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which may facilitate the virus-cell fusion. Based on these findings, we develop a novel approach that comprehensively analyzed the virus receptor expression, ACE2 shedding, membrane fusion activity, virus uptake and virus replication to evaluate the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 to different human organs. Our results indicate that, in addition to airway epithelia, cardiac tissue and enteric canals are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 as well.

submitted time 2020-02-27 Hits51027Downloads6348 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202002.00075 [pdf]

2019年新型冠状病毒导致的致命肺渗漏的病理生理学机制和防治策略

Chen, Sifeng
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Other Disciplines of Medicine and Pharmacology

自2019年12月爆发以来,2019年新型冠状病毒已在全球造成2596人死亡,并且有超过11,000名患者仍处于严重状况。该病毒和由该病毒引起的医疗状况被命名为SARS-CoV-2和COVID-19。虽然已经广泛应用了抗病毒、对症和功能支持性疗法,每天仍有100多名患者死于该病毒感染。COVID-19最常见的致命并发症是急性呼吸窘迫综合征(ARDS)。SARS-CoV-2在世界范围内的大流行可能仍然存在。其它病毒感染引起的肺炎亦可导致ARDS,出现类似的危重情形,这些病毒包括如非典型的急性呼吸系统综合症(SARS)、中东呼吸综合征(MERS)和流感病毒引起的肺炎。因此,制定更有效的降低病毒所致的ARDS死亡率的策略,不但是当前抗新冠疫情的迫切需要,也是全球范围内降低病毒性肺炎死亡率的长期需要。ARDS曾被称为湿肺,血管泄漏导致的肺水肿是其最重要的病理特征之一,重型COVID-19的临床表现和胸部计算机断层扫描图像特征(白肺)符合ARDS。确定水肿液从何处及如何渗漏到肺部,是制定基于机制的预防和阻止水从肺毛细管向肺间质渗漏的策略,降低湿肺死亡率的关键。对于轻度和中度病例,非类固醇消炎药,如用于风湿性关节炎的药物,可能有助于防止和减少这种漏水。免疫抑制剂(如西罗莫司和巨蜥)可能使病毒感染、免疫反应和非免疫炎症造成的损伤高峰时间错开,从而降低肺漏水程度,防止危及生命情况出现。使用清火中草药可能也有抗炎用。对于严重病例,血液透析可能是消除大多数炎症介质和细胞毒性物质的有效策略。

submitted time 2020-02-25 Hits21278Downloads2729 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202002.00077 [pdf]

COVID-19疫情发展至中期状态下全国不同地区居民心理状态调查分析

刘丹; 王莹; 刘萍; 李振娟; 王滨; 张佳威; 武雨琦; 王祥卫; 熊晨晨
Subjects: Psychology >> Medical Psychology
Subjects: Medicine, Pharmacy >> Preclinical Medicine

目的:调查在COVID-19疫情发展至中期状态下全国不同地区居民心理状态。方法:对全国不同地区3340位居民进行了抑郁自评量表(Self-Rating Depression Scale, SDS)、焦虑自评量表(Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, SAS)、社会支持评定量表(Social Support Rate Scale, SSRS)及疾病认知调查与分析。结果:抑郁(40.89±10.901)和焦虑(38.35±8.298)平均分与常模比较轻度升高(P < 0.05),但无临床意义(抑郁评分>53;焦虑评分>50),湖北地区群众与非鄂地区相比,抑郁和焦虑得分未见明显差异。SSRS评分各组平均分均>30分,但低龄组小于高龄组(P < 0.05)。疾病认知评分,医学组高于非医学组,低龄组高于高龄组(P < 0.05)。相关性分析结果提示认知与焦虑和抑郁评分呈负相关(P < 0.05)。结论:在党和人民政府的领导下,抗“疫”战争已经取得了阶段性的胜利,广大人民群众,特别是湖北地区居民的焦虑和抑郁情绪得到了一定程度的缓解,但仍较非疫情期间略有升高。社会群众,特别是老年群众对疾病认知还相对不足,需要社区及医务人员进一步进行普及,充分认识疾病可能是消除焦虑和抑郁的有效手段。

submitted time 2020-02-19 Hits20218Downloads2274 Comment 0

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