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1. chinaXiv:202206.00118 [pdf]

利用红外相机监测新疆天池博格达峰自然保护区鸟兽资源

白慧
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

红外相机技术目前已成为监测陆栖哺乳动物和地栖鸟类的常用技术手段。为监测新疆天池博格达峰自然保护区内鸟类和兽类资源,于2019年7月—2020年9月,在保护区内选取30个红外相机位点共布设58台红外相机,累积工作29730个工作日,共获得99850份图像及视频数据,采集独立有效照片5744张;共观测到野生陆生脊椎动物9目19科29种,其中兽类5目10科15种,鸟类4目9科14种。观测到的动物中有国家I级重点保护野生动物雪豹(Panthera uncia),国家II级重点保护野生动物6种,分别为北山羊(Capra sibirica)、马鹿(Cervus canadensis)、猞猁(Lynx lynx)、赤狐(Vulpes vulpes)、黑鸢(Milvus migrans)以及暗腹雪鸡(Tetraogallus himalayensis)。森林生境中,兽类相对多度指数最高的是马鹿(RAI=60.569),鸟类相对多度指数最高的是山斑鸠(Streptopelia ori?entalis,RAI=0.854);高山草甸及裸岩生境中,兽类相对多度指数最高的是马鹿(RAI=18.693),鸟类相对多度指数最高的是暗腹雪鸡(RAI=0.316)和黄嘴山鸦(Pyrrhocorax graculus,RAI=0.854)。物种累积曲线结果显示:兽类物种数在200 d之后几乎不再增长,而鸟类物种数在100 d之后增速放缓但一直持续增长,表明时长450 d的红外相机监测力度对保护区中的兽类而言较为充分,对鸟类而言还不够充分。研究结果可为新疆天池博格达峰自然保护区野生陆生脊椎动物多样性监测与评估提供数据参考,为该保护区的保护管理工作提供科学依据。

submitted time 2022-06-08 Cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1179Downloads232 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202206.00090 [pdf]

Nothosaurus luopingensis n. sp. (Sauropterygia) from the Anisian, Middle Triassic of Luoping, Yunnan Province, China

SHANG Qing-Hua; LI Chun; WANG Wei
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Nothosaurus luopingensis n. sp. from Member II of the Guanling Formation (Anisian, Middle Triassic) of Luoping, Yunnan, China is described based on a specimen comprising the skull and most of the postcranial skeleton. The specimen is assigned to Nothosaurus of Eosauropterygia as suggested by a series of skull characters, such as the maxillary tooth row extending posteriorly beyond the level of the anterior margin of the upper temporal fenestra, the longitudinal diameter of the upper temporal fenestra is more than twice as long as that of the orbit, and the presence of maxillary fangs. Compared with Lariosaurus, the following morphological features of the pectoral girdle and the limbs also support the assignment of the specimen to Nothosaurus, i.e., the clavicles with expanded anterolateral corners, the characteristically curved humerus with a straight preaxial angle and a postaxial concavity, the distinct deltopectoral crest on the proximal part of the humerus, no hyperphalangy in the manus, and the absence of pachyostosis in the vertebrae and ribs. On the other hand, the specimen possesses some postcranial features that were previously considered to occur mainly in Lariosaurus, such as there being more than three ossifications in the carpus, having four sacral ribs, and an interclavicle without any trace of a posterior stem. These postcranial characters may no longer be used as the diagnostic features of Lariosaurus. N. luopingensis is distinguished from other Nothosaurus species by a unique combination of derived characters, including that the jugal enters the orbit, the nasals are separated, the posterior end of the frontal is bifurcate, pedal digits V and IV are long and subequal in length, and the ungula phalanx is stout. Our phylogenetic analysis reconfirms the monophyly of Nothosaurus and suggest that N. luopingensis is the sister group of N. yangjuanensis within the genus.

submitted time 2022-06-07 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits764Downloads206 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202206.00091 [pdf]

On kannemeyeriiform dicynodonts from the Shaanbeikannemeyeria Assemblage Zone of the Ordos Basin, China

LIU Jun
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Shaanbeikannemeyeria is a common tetrapod from the lower part of the Ermaying Formation of the Ordos Basin, China. There are taxonomical questions surrounding this genus, such as the validity of the genus, and how many species are included within it. Several specimens have been collected since 1978. Shaanbeikannemeyeria first appeared from the top of the Heshanggou Formation. These specimens are described to clarify the diagnostic characters, the individual variations and the phylogenetic position of Shaanbeikannemeyeria. Only one species, S. xilougouensis, is recognized. It is characterized by the following autapomorphies: occiput strongly inclined relative to the palate such that the skull is much shorter basally than dorsally, sword tip-like premaxillary posterodorsal processes, tall and dorsally-convex cutting blade on the medial edge of the dorsal surface of the dentary, reflected lamina with a separated posteroventral process, and 15 dorsal vertebrae. This species shows variations on the cranial morphology, such as the occiput height relative to the width, the snout tip (sharp or obtuse), the shape of the orbital portion of the zygomatic arch, and the shape of caniniform process. Some variations could be ontogenetically related, such as the development of the caniniform process and tusk, the posterior extension of the maxilla on the zygomatic arch, the distance between the frontal and the premaxilla, the intertemporal bar width, and the exposing degree of the parietals. Based on postcranial bones, the second dicynodont genus (possibly Parakannemeyeria) is present in the lower Ermaying Formation.

submitted time 2022-06-07 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits630Downloads202 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202204.00119 [pdf]

Xitunaspis, a new eugaleaspid fish (Eugaleaspiformes, Galeaspida) from the Lower Devonian of Qujing, Yunnan

SUN Hao-Ran; GAI Zhi-Kun; CAI Jia-Chen; LI Qiang; ZHU Min; ZHAO Wen-Jin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

A new genus and species of the family Eugaleaspidae (Eugaleaspiformes, Galeaspida), Xitunaspis magnus gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Lower Devonian Xitun Formation in Qujing, Yunnan Province, China. The new genus displays the diagnostic characters of the Eugaleaspidae, including a slit-like median dorsal opening, no inner cornual process, developed median dorsal canals, and only three pairs of lateral transverse canals extending from lateral dorsal canals. Different from the other eugaleaspids, X. magnus possesses a large headshield with thick dermal bone and a more plesiomorphic sensory canal system. The phylogenetic analysis of the Galeaspida reveals that Xitunaspis clusters with Dunyu and Eugaleaspis to form a monophyletic clade Eugaleaspidae Liu, 1965, and has a closer relationship with Dunyu than Eugaleaspis by sharing the thick dermal bone of the headshield. The new finding represents the first convincing fossil record of the Eugaleaspiformes in the middle Lochkovian Xitun Formation and adds to our knowledge about the morphology of eugaleaspiforms and the evolutionary pattern of the sensory canal system in the Eugaleaspiformes and even Galeaspida.

submitted time 2022-04-16 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3115Downloads436 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202204.00120 [pdf]

New fossils of small and medium-sized bovids from the Early Pleistocene Site of Shanshenmiaozui in Nihewan Basin, North China

TONG Hao-Wen; ZHANG Bei; CHEN Xi; WANG Xiao-Min
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Shanshenmiaozui site in Nihewan Basin in North China is a recently discovered Early Pleistocene site which yields rich and diverse mammalian fossils. In the fauna, the small and medium-sized bovid fossils are well represented and can be referred to the following taxa: Spirocerus wongi, Gazella sinensis, Ovis shantungensis and Megalovis piveteaui respectively, among which G. sinensis is the dominate species. S. wongi and G. sinensis are mainly represented by horn-cores and partial skull bones as well as mandibles; in addition, metacarpal and/or metatarsal bones were also recognized for all of the four species. The horn-cores are easy to be identified to the species level, while the dentitions and the postcranial bones underwent a series of examinations and comparisons before getting properly determined and referred to the most approximate taxa. Among the postcranial bones, the metapodials, especially to the metacarpal bones special attentions were paid, which are crucial not only for taxonomic identification, but also for phylogenetic and paleoecological reconstructions; the previously misidentified metapodial specimens in Nihewan fauna were reconsidered in this paper. In the SSMZ fauna, the bovid guild is dominated by Gazella and Bison, which indicates steppe was the most important biome in Nihewan Basin during Early Pleistocene.

submitted time 2022-04-16 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2674Downloads404 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202204.00121 [pdf]

Attributing “Gomphotherium shensiense” to Platybelodon tongxinensis, and a new species of Platybelodon from the latest Middle Miocene

WANG Shi-Qi; LI Chun-Xiao
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Platybelodon is the predominant proboscidean of northern China’s Middle Miocene. However, the cranial and cheek tooth morphologies are not clearly diagnosed. In particular, the differential diagnoses between Platybelodon and Gomphotherium have not been comprehensively examined. Here we restudied the cranium previously identified as Gomphotherium shensiense. The upper tusks lack an enamel band, the rostrum is long and narrow, the facial part is rostrally positioned, and a large “prenasal slope” is present. These characters are distinct from those of any species of Gomphotherium, but fit well with some primitive species of Platybelodon, i.e., P. tongxinensis and P. danovi. The molars are also close to the type specimen of P. tongxinensis in the tetralophodont M3 with mesiodistally wide interlophs, curved outline, and a tendency of cementodonty. In this article, we synonymized Gomphotherium shensiense with P. tongxinensis. Moreover, we recognized a new species, Platybelodon tetralophus, from the P. grangeri material collected by the AMHN expedition in Tunggur region. Platybelodon tetralophus differs from P. grangeri and the other species in the tetralophodont M2 and m2, representing the most derived species within Platybelodon. It has only occurred in the uppermost horizon of the Tunggur Formation, i.e., the Tamuqin Fauna (Platybelodon Quarry and Wolf Camp Quarry of AMHN). This work is a comprehensive amending of the genus Platybelodon.

submitted time 2022-04-16 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2981Downloads364 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202204.00122 [pdf]

A new species of Pararhizomys (Tachyoryctoidinae, Muroidea) from Linxia Basin of Gansu Province

WANG Ban-Yue
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

An anterior part of skull was recently found near Xiayangwan in Guanghe County, Gansu Province, presumably from the Liushu Formation. The skull represents a new species of Pararhizomys, named as Pararhizomys parvulus. The new species is characterized by: small size, upper molars higher crowned and mesio-lingually hypsodont with sinus deeper than mesosinus; sinus and mesosinus in M3 being transverse and overlapping each other, but sinus longer than mesosinus on occlusal view. Based on shared apomorphies (lingually hypsodont upper molars and transverse sinus and mesosinus on M3 occulsal surface), P. parvulus and P. huaxiaensis are supposed to form a sister group. However, P. parvulus may be more derived than P. huaxiaensis as demonstrated by the more hypsodont molars and the deeper sinus in M3.

submitted time 2022-04-16 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits2890Downloads360 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202201.00084 [pdf]

A Late Pliocene Hipparion houfenense fauna from Yegou, Nihewan Basin and its biostratigraphic significance

LIU Jin-Yi; ZHANG Ying-Qi; CHI Zhen-Qing; WANG Yong; YANG Jin-Song; ZHENG Shao-Hua
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Currently, there are still different views regarding the chronology of the Late Cenozoic deposits in the Nihewan Basin, which results from the contradiction between biostratigraphic correlations based on mammalian fossils and magnetostratigraphic dating results. Biostratigraphic correlations indicate that the aeolian red clay exposed in the Sanggan River canyon, the fluviolacustrine red clay with sands and gravels, and the sandy clay of swamp facies on both sides of the lower reaches of the Huliu River belong to the Upper Pliocene, whereas the magnetostratigraphic dating usually correlates them to the Lower Pleistocene. In October 2011, a collection of mammalian fossils was unearthed from a block of collapsed deposits at Yegou in the Nihewan Basin, which is about 300 m north of the Laowogou section that is well known for the Pliocene mammalian fossils from its lower part. The Yegou fossils are identified herein as 10 species in 9 genera: Nyctereutes tingi, N. sinensis, Pachycrocuta pyrenaica, Homotherium sp., Hipparion (Plesiohipparion) houfenense, Dicerorhinus sp., Muntiacus sp., Axis shansius, Gazella blacki, and Paracamelus sp. The fauna is quite different from the classic Early Pleistocene Nihewan Fauna in composition and provides new evidence for the existence of the Upper Pliocene in the Nihewan Basin. Based on a systematic description of the fauna, its composition and geological age are discussed, and the compositional features of large mammals of the Late Pliocene and the Early Pleistocene mammalian faunas in the Nihewan Basin are summarized.

submitted time 2022-01-24 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3666Downloads474 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202201.00059 [pdf]

Reappraisal of the largest ctenochasmatid Moganopterus zhuiana L?et al., 2012

GAO Dian-Song; JIANG Shun-Xing; XU Li1 CHENG Xin; YANG Li-Li; JIA Song-Hai; WANG Xiao-Lin
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Moganopterus zhuiana L?et al. 2012 was erected as a member of the Boreopteridae, which was questioned by different researchers shortly after the publication. Although the new assignment to the Ctenochasmatidae is widely accepted by pterosaur researchers, some characteristics still require a detailed description. Here, the holotype of this taxon is restudied, and some ambiguous characteristics are re-identified. The diagnosis of this taxon has been revised as the following: a large ctenochasmatid pterosaur, which can be distinguished from other members of this clade by a single autapomorphy: an elongated rod-like parietal crest that extends posterodorsally, forming an angle of about 15?with the ventral margin of the skull. This taxon can be further distinguished from other ctenochasmatids on the basis of the following combination of characteristics: straight occlusal surfaces of the upper and low jaws; presence of a low premaxillary crest confined anterior to the nasoantorbital fenestra; rostrum about two thirds of the skull length; nasoantorbital fenestra occupying slightly more than 20% of the skull length; about 100 slender teeth; and a mid-cervical length/width ratio of about 7. The wingspan of M. zhuiana has been re-estimated according to a simple regression equation for wingspan versus skull length in ctenochasmatids. It confirms that M. zhuiana, although smaller than previous thought, is still the largest known ctenochasmatid. When comparing the sizes of ctenochasmatids in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, ctenochasmatids showed a rough tendency to increase their sizes.

submitted time 2022-01-19 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits3533Downloads560 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202111.00034 [pdf]

Revisit of Hsianwenia wui (Cyprinidae: Schizothoracinae) from the Pliocene of Qaidam Basin

BI Dai-Ran; WU Fei-Xiang; WANG Ning; CHANG Mee-Man; FANG Geng-Yu
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

The Qaidam Basin is a key area for understanding the paleoenvironmental and faunal history of the Tibetan Plateau. The fossil schizothoracine fish, Hsianwenia wui, evolved extraordinarily thickened bones to adapt to the aridification of the Qaidam Basin during the Pliocene. However, the nature of the bone thickening itself remains elusive. To promote the further investigation of the physiological mechanism of the pachyostosis and the phylogenetic interrelationships of Hsianwenia and all relevant cyprinids, here we present a comprehensive morphological study of Hsianwenia. We have new information on the anterior part of the cranial cavity, a large supraneural 3 in the Weberian apparatus, numerous procurrent caudal fin rays supported by the preural centrum (Pu) 5, and a neural arch on Pu2. We also find the differentiated pattern of the bone-thickening: the pachyostosis exists in the endoskeleton but not in the dermal skeleton; it is more obvious in ventral bones than in dorsal ones, when the thickening is present in the dorsally and ventrally grouped endoskeletal bones (e.g., the epineural and epipleural intermuscular bones). Considering the integrity of musculoskeletal system manipulating the chewing activities, we suspect that the thickened pharyngeal jaws and the hard food processing might be associated with the unique hind protrusion (cleithral “humeral” process) of the dermal pectoral girdle of Hsianwenia.

submitted time 2021-11-26 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits10219Downloads676 Comment 0

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