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1. chinaXiv:202206.00162 [pdf]

Tree-ring δ15N of Qinghai spruce in the central Qilian Mountains of China: Is pre-treatment of wood samples necessary?

WANG Ziyi; LIU Xiaohong; WANG Keyi; ZENG Xiaomin; ZHANG Yu; GE Wensen; KANG Huhu; LU Qiangqiang
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Abstract: A knowledge of the tree-ring stable nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) can deepen our understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics by indicating the long-term availability, cycling and sources of nitrogen (N). However, the radial mobility of N blurs the interannual variations in the long-term N records. Previous studies of the chemical extraction of tree rings before analysis had produced inconsistent results and it is still unclear whether it is necessary to pre-treat wood samples from specific tree species to remove soluble N compounds before determining the δ15N values. We compared the effects of pre-treatment with organic solvents and hot ultrapure water on the N concentration and δ15N of tree rings from endemic Qinghai spruce (Picea crassifolia) growing in the interior of the central Qilian Mountains, China, during the last 60 a. We assessed the effects of different preparation protocols on the removal of the labile N compounds and investigated the need to pre-treat wood samples before determining the δ15N values of tree rings. Increasing trends of the tree-ring N concentration were consistently observed in both the extracted and unextracted wood samples. The total N removed by extraction with organic solvents was about 17.60%, with a significantly higher amount in the sapwood section (P<0.01). The δ15N values of tree rings decreased consistently from 1960 to 2019 in both the extracted and unextracted wood samples. Extraction with organic solvents increased the δ15N values markedly by about 5.2‰ and reduced the variations in the δ15N series. However, extraction with hot ultrapure water had little effect, with only a slight decrease in the δ15N values of about 0.5‰. Our results showed that the radial pattern in the inter-ring movement of N in Qinghai spruce was not minimized by extraction with either organic solvents or hot ultrapure water. It is unnecessary to conduct hot ultrapure water extraction for the wood samples from Qinghai spruce because of its negligible effect on the removal of the labile N. The δ15N variation trend of tree rings in the unextracted wood samples was not influenced by the heartwood–sapwood transition zone. We suggest that the δ15N values of the unextracted wood samples of the climate-sensitive Qinghai spruce could be used to explore the ecophysiological dynamics while focusing on the long-term variations.

submitted time 2022-06-20 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits192Downloads88 Comment 0

2. chinaXiv:202206.00151 [pdf]

Dependency of litter decomposition on litter quality, climate change, and grassland type in the alpine grassland of Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China

SU Yuan; GONG Yanming; HAN Wenxuan; LI Kaihui; LIU Xuejun
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Abstract: Litter decomposition is an important component of the nutrient recycling process and is highly sensitive to climate change. However, the impacts of warming and increased precipitation on litter decomposition have not been well studied, especially in the alpine grassland of Tianshan Mountains. We conducted a manipulative warming and increased precipitation experiment combined with different grassland types to examine the impact of litter quality and climate change on the litter decomposition rate based on three dominant species (Astragalus mongholicus, Potentilla anserina, and Festuca ovina) in Tianshan Mountains from 2019 to 2021. The results of this study indicated there were significant differences in litter quality, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content. In addition, litter quality exerted significant effects on litter decomposition, and the litter decomposition rate varied in different grassland types. Increased precipitation significantly accelerated the litter decomposition of P. anserina; however, it had no significant effect on the litter decomposition of A. mongholicus and F. ovina. However, warming consistently decreased the litter decomposition rate, with the strongest impact on the litter decomposition of F. ovina. There was a significant interaction between increased precipitation and litter type, but there was no significant interaction between warming and litter type. These results indicated that warming and increased precipitation significantly influenced litter decomposition; however, the strength was dependent on litter quality. In addition, soil water content played a crucial role in regulating litter decomposition in different grassland types. Moreover, we found that the litter decomposition rate exhibited a hump-shaped or linear response to the increase of soil water content. Our study emphasizes that ongoing climate change significantly altered litter decomposition in the alpine grassland, which is of great significance for understanding the nutrient supply and turnover of litter.

submitted time 2022-06-17 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits289Downloads167 Comment 0

3. chinaXiv:202206.00153 [pdf]

Water use characteristics of different pioneer shrubs at different ages in western Chinese Loess Plateau: Evidence from δ2H offset correction

ZHANG Yu; ZHANG Mingjun; QU Deye; WANG Shengjie; Athanassios A ARGIRIOU; WANG Jiaxin; YANG Ye
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Abstract: Caragana korshinskii Kom. and Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. are pioneer shrubs for water and soil conservation, and for windbreak and sand fixation in arid and semi-arid areas. Understanding the water use characteristics of different pioneer shrubs at different ages is of great importance for their survival when extreme rainfall occurs. In recent years, the stable isotope tracing technique has been used in exploring the water use strategies of plants. However, the widespread δ2H offsets of stem water from its potential sources result in conflicting interpretations of water utilization of plants in arid and semi-arid areas. In this study, we used three sets of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope data (δ2H and δ18O, corrected δ2H_c1 based on SW-excess and δ18O, and corrected δ2H_c2 based on −8.1‰ and δ18O) as inputs for the MixSIAR model to explore the water use characteristics of C. korshinskii and T. ramosissima at different ages and in response to rainfall. The results showed that δ2H_c1 and δ18O have the best performance, and the contribution rate of deep soil water was underestimated because of δ2H offset. During the dry periods, C. korshinskii and T. ramosissima at different ages both obtained mostly water from deeper soil layers. After rainfall, the proportions of surface (0–10 cm) and shallow (10–40 cm) soil water for C. korshinskii and T. ramosissima at different ages both increased. Nevertheless, there were different response mechanisms of these two plants for rainfall. In addition, C. korshinskii absorbed various potential water sources, while T. ramosissima only used deep water. These flexible water use characteristics of C. korshinskii and T. ramosissima might facilitate the coexistence of plants once extreme rainfall occurs. Thus, reasonable allocation of different plants may be a good vegetation restoration program in western Chinese Loess Plateau.

submitted time 2022-06-17 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits282Downloads162 Comment 0

4. chinaXiv:202206.00155 [pdf]

Spatiotemporal variations and driving factors of habitat quality in the loess hilly area of the Yellow River Basin: A case study of Lanzhou City, China

DONG Jianhong; ZHANG Zhibin; LIU Benteng; ZHANG Xinhong; ZHANG Wenbin; CHEN Long
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Abstract: Rapid industrialization and urbanization have led to the most serious habitat degradation in China, especially in the loess hilly area of the Yellow River Basin, where the ecological environment is relatively fragile. The contradiction between economic development and ecological environment protection has aroused widespread concern. In this study, we used the habitat quality of Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST-HQ) model at different scales to evaluate the dynamic evolution characteristics of habitat quality in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province of China. The spatiotemporal variations of habitat quality were analyzed by spatial autocorrelation. A Geographical Detector (Geodetector) model was used to explore the driving factors that influencing the spatial differentiation of habitat quality, including natural factors, socio-economic factors, and ecological protection factors. The results showed that the habitat quality index of Lanzhou City decreased from 0.4638 to 0.4548 during 2000–2018. The areas with reduced the habitat quality index were mainly located in the Yellow River Basin and Qinwangchuan Basin, where are the main urban areas and the new economic development areas, respectively. The spatial distribution of habitat quality presented a trend of high in the surrounding areas and low in the middle, and showed a significant positive spatial autocorrelation. With the increase of study scale, the spatial distribution of habitat quality changed from concentrated to dispersed. The spatial differentiation of habitat quality in the study area was the result of multiple factors. Among them, topographic relief and slope were the key factors. The synergistic enhancement among these driving factors intensified the spatial differentiation of habitat quality. The findings of this study can provide a scientific basis for land resources utilization and ecosystem restoration in the arid and semi-arid land.

submitted time 2022-06-17 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits255Downloads145 Comment 0

5. chinaXiv:202206.00135 [pdf]

Changes in diversity, composition and assembly processes of soil microbial communities during Robinia pseudoacacia L. restoration on the Loess Plateau, China

WANG Kun; WANG Xiaoxia; FEI Hongyan; WAN Chuanyu; HAN Fengpeng
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

Abstract: Robinia pseudoacacia L. (RP) restoration has increased vegetation cover in semi-arid regions on the Loess Plateau of China, but ecological problems have also occurred due to RP restoration, such as reduced soil moisture. Further, it is still uncertain how microbial diversity, composition and assembly processes change with RP restoration in semi-arid regions. Therefore, amplicon sequencing of small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genes was performed to study soil bacterial and fungal diversity, composition and assembly processes at four study sites with different stand ages of RP plantations (Y10, RP plantation with stand ages less than 10 a; Y15, RP plantation with stand ages approximately 15 a; Y25, RP plantation with stand ages approximately 25 a; and Y40, RP plantation with stand ages approximately 40 a) along a 40-a chronosequence on the Loess Plateau. The diversity of soil bacteria and fungi increased significantly during the restoration period from 10 to 15 a (P<0.05). However, compared with Y15, bacterial diversity was lower at Y25 and Y40, and fungal diversity remained stable during the restoration period between 25 and 40 a. The relative abundances of Proteobacteria and Ascomycota increased during the restoration period from 10 to 15 a. Conversely, after 15 a of restoration, they both decreased, whereas the relative abundances of Actinomycetes, Acidobacteria and Basidiomycota gradually increased. The variations in soil bacterial communities were mainly related to changes in soil total nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and moisture contents, while soil fungal communities were mainly shaped by soil organic carbon and nitrate nitrogen contents. Bacterial communities were structured by the heterogeneous selection and stochastic process, while fungal communities were structured primarily by the stochastic process. The RP restoration induced an increase in the relative importance of heterogeneous selection on bacterial communities. Overall, this study reveals the changes in microbial diversity, community composition and assembly processes with RP restoration on the Loess Plateau and provides a new perspective on the effects of vegetation restoration on soil microbial communities in semi-arid regions.

submitted time 2022-06-13 Cooperative journals:《Journal of Arid Land》 Hits1149Downloads167 Comment 0

6. chinaXiv:202206.00113 [pdf]

干旱区梨园不同覆盖条件下土壤环境因子综合性评价研究

曹刚
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

在干旱沿黄灌区开展不同覆盖材料配合滴灌的灌溉保墒方式下,进一步研究了不同覆盖方
式对梨园全生育期的土壤理化性状和养分含量变化影响,分析了土壤温度、水分、pH等和矿质营养
元素间的相互关系,对覆盖后的土壤质量进行了综合性评价。试验处理分为无覆盖对照(T1)、园
艺地布覆盖(T2)、玉米秸秆覆盖(T3)和黑地膜覆盖(T4)4个处理;试验设计为随机区组设计,每个
处理小区均为167株梨树(约占地667 m2),重复3次;各小区土样分0~20 cm、20~40 cm、40~60 cm
土层取样。结果表明:(1)园艺地布和黑地膜覆盖处理有一定的增温效应,而玉米秸秆覆盖有较好
的降温和稳温效应,且增墒效应明显,土壤含水率比其他3种处理显著提高了1.0%~2.7%。(2)相较
无覆盖处理,黑地膜覆盖可提升表层土壤pH,并加速表层土壤有机质的分解,有机质含量较无覆盖
处理下降33.1%;玉米秸秆覆盖可显著降低各土层的土壤pH,降低范围为1.8%~4.6%,并促进0~20
cm土层有机质的提升,土壤有机质含量增加12.2%;园艺地布覆盖下0~40 cm土层内土壤有机质含量
和全盐量均有降低。(3)黑地膜覆盖下0~20 cm和20~40 cm土层的碱解氮含量分别为73.00 mg·g-1和
64.53 mg·g-1,均显著地高于无覆盖处理,无覆盖条件下土壤碱解氮在深层(40~60 cm土层)积累较
多,显著地高于玉米秸秆和黑地膜覆盖;各处理0~20 cm和20~40 cm土层速效磷含量差异显著,大
小顺序均为T4>T3>T2>T1,玉米秸秆覆盖可提升土壤速效钾和速效铁的含量。(4)进行主成分分析
表明不同覆盖方式对梨园浅层土壤环境因子的影响要明显大于深层土壤,在0~40 cm土层内各覆
盖处理效果均好于无覆盖处理,其中玉米秸秆覆盖在0~20 cm和20~40 cm土层综合得分分别为
1.189和0.326,覆盖效果最佳。

submitted time 2022-06-09 Cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1205Downloads209 Comment 0

7. chinaXiv:202206.00114 [pdf]

胡麻生理生化代谢指标对干旱胁迫的 响应及其模拟模型的研究

康佳
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

为进一步研究胡麻生理生化代谢指标响应干旱胁迫时对胡麻产量的影响,采用盆栽控水法模拟胡麻干旱胁迫,依据2013—2014年甘肃省定西市西巩驿镇胡麻试验数据,建立并检验胡麻干旱胁迫模型,模拟干旱胁迫时对胡麻生理生化指标及产量影响,利用均方根误差(RMSE)和决定系数(R2)描述模型拟合度。结果表明:(1)模型产量模拟值的RMSE为41.3159~155.6685 kg·hm-2,平均值为80.1837 kg·hm-2;R2为0.8929~0.9894,平均值为0.9387,该模型具有较好的拟合度、可行性也较强。(2)在重度干旱胁迫下,抗氧化代谢指标——超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)中,CAT活性表现趋势为下降,终花期POD活性增幅(26.09%~28.00%)最大;渗透调节的3种物质含量均显著上升,其中脯氨酸增幅最大,达236.22%。(3)呈现出极显著相关性的各指标有3组,分别是脯氨酸与叶绿素、丙二醛和CAT活性;可溶性蛋白与丙二醛和CAT活性;POD活性与SOD活性。胡麻生理生化指标响应不同程度干旱胁迫与胡麻的产量有极强的关联,此模型的建立是对胡麻生理生化指标响应干旱胁迫的科学补充,进一步为胡麻的高效生产管理及农业生产系统提供理论依据和支持。

submitted time 2022-06-08 Cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1639Downloads228 Comment 0

8. chinaXiv:202206.00116 [pdf]

华北一作区马铃薯生长发育及产量对干旱胁迫响应的模拟研究 ——以武川县为例

罗新兰
Subjects: Biology >> Ecology

为探究不同程度干旱胁迫对华北一作区马铃薯生长发育及产量的影响,以内蒙古呼和浩特市武川县为例,基于多年马铃薯生长发育资料和气象资料,对APSIM-Potato模型进行调参与验证,评价模型在武川地区的适用性。利用验证后的模型模拟马铃薯叶面积指数(LAI)、地上部生物量和产量对不同发育阶段干旱胁迫的响应。结果表明:(1)各发育阶段天数的模拟值与实测值的均方根误差(RMSE)均在3 d内;LAI、地上部生物量和产量的模拟值与实测值的归一化均方根误差(NRMSE)分别为12.82%、17.35%和14.48%,均低于20%,表明APSIM-Potato模型在武川地区具有较好的适用性。(2)随着干旱胁迫时间和强度的增加,马铃薯LAI、地上部生物量和产量随之减小。模拟单一发育阶段干旱胁迫时,马铃薯LAI、地上部生物量和产量对分枝-开花期水分胁迫的响应最大;模拟连续发育阶段干旱胁迫时,LAI、地上部生物量和产量对全生育期水分胁迫的响应最大。

submitted time 2022-06-08 Cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1149Downloads210 Comment 0

9. chinaXiv:202206.00118 [pdf]

利用红外相机监测新疆天池博格达峰自然保护区鸟兽资源

白慧
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

红外相机技术目前已成为监测陆栖哺乳动物和地栖鸟类的常用技术手段。为监测新疆天池博格达峰自然保护区内鸟类和兽类资源,于2019年7月—2020年9月,在保护区内选取30个红外相机位点共布设58台红外相机,累积工作29730个工作日,共获得99850份图像及视频数据,采集独立有效照片5744张;共观测到野生陆生脊椎动物9目19科29种,其中兽类5目10科15种,鸟类4目9科14种。观测到的动物中有国家I级重点保护野生动物雪豹(Panthera uncia),国家II级重点保护野生动物6种,分别为北山羊(Capra sibirica)、马鹿(Cervus canadensis)、猞猁(Lynx lynx)、赤狐(Vulpes vulpes)、黑鸢(Milvus migrans)以及暗腹雪鸡(Tetraogallus himalayensis)。森林生境中,兽类相对多度指数最高的是马鹿(RAI=60.569),鸟类相对多度指数最高的是山斑鸠(Streptopelia ori?entalis,RAI=0.854);高山草甸及裸岩生境中,兽类相对多度指数最高的是马鹿(RAI=18.693),鸟类相对多度指数最高的是暗腹雪鸡(RAI=0.316)和黄嘴山鸦(Pyrrhocorax graculus,RAI=0.854)。物种累积曲线结果显示:兽类物种数在200 d之后几乎不再增长,而鸟类物种数在100 d之后增速放缓但一直持续增长,表明时长450 d的红外相机监测力度对保护区中的兽类而言较为充分,对鸟类而言还不够充分。研究结果可为新疆天池博格达峰自然保护区野生陆生脊椎动物多样性监测与评估提供数据参考,为该保护区的保护管理工作提供科学依据。

submitted time 2022-06-08 Cooperative journals:《干旱区地理》 Hits1151Downloads218 Comment 0

10. chinaXiv:202206.00090 [pdf]

Nothosaurus luopingensis n. sp. (Sauropterygia) from the Anisian, Middle Triassic of Luoping, Yunnan Province, China

SHANG Qing-Hua; LI Chun; WANG Wei
Subjects: Biology >> Zoology

Nothosaurus luopingensis n. sp. from Member II of the Guanling Formation (Anisian, Middle Triassic) of Luoping, Yunnan, China is described based on a specimen comprising the skull and most of the postcranial skeleton. The specimen is assigned to Nothosaurus of Eosauropterygia as suggested by a series of skull characters, such as the maxillary tooth row extending posteriorly beyond the level of the anterior margin of the upper temporal fenestra, the longitudinal diameter of the upper temporal fenestra is more than twice as long as that of the orbit, and the presence of maxillary fangs. Compared with Lariosaurus, the following morphological features of the pectoral girdle and the limbs also support the assignment of the specimen to Nothosaurus, i.e., the clavicles with expanded anterolateral corners, the characteristically curved humerus with a straight preaxial angle and a postaxial concavity, the distinct deltopectoral crest on the proximal part of the humerus, no hyperphalangy in the manus, and the absence of pachyostosis in the vertebrae and ribs. On the other hand, the specimen possesses some postcranial features that were previously considered to occur mainly in Lariosaurus, such as there being more than three ossifications in the carpus, having four sacral ribs, and an interclavicle without any trace of a posterior stem. These postcranial characters may no longer be used as the diagnostic features of Lariosaurus. N. luopingensis is distinguished from other Nothosaurus species by a unique combination of derived characters, including that the jugal enters the orbit, the nasals are separated, the posterior end of the frontal is bifurcate, pedal digits V and IV are long and subequal in length, and the ungula phalanx is stout. Our phylogenetic analysis reconfirms the monophyly of Nothosaurus and suggest that N. luopingensis is the sister group of N. yangjuanensis within the genus.

submitted time 2022-06-07 Cooperative journals:《古脊椎动物学报》 Hits737Downloads193 Comment 0

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