摘要：The model-based decomposition that originated from Freeman-Durden three-component decomposition (FDD) has been widely applied in polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) data processing for its clear physical interpretation and easy implementation. Numerous improvements have been proposed to settle the twomain drawbacks of FDD, i.e., the incomplete utilization of the polarimetric information in the coherency matrix and the negative scattering power problem. Recently, Cui et al. proposed a complete model-based three-component decomposition which successfully settled the two aforementioned drawbacks. However, the three scattering components' powers are not totally derived using scattering models, and the remaining coherency matrix (RCM) obtained by subtracting the volume scattering component from the coherency matrix is not consistent with the models of surface and double-bounce scattering components. As an extension of Cui's method, this letter is dedicated to develop a novel method to discriminate the surface and double-bounce scattering components both using scattering models. With the orientation angle (OA) variation and helix angle (HA) variation compensated for the RCM, the RCM is automatically consistent with the models of surface and double-scattering components. The OA variation and HA variation compensation for the RCMis done by unitary transformations of the eigenvectors of the RCM. The powers of surface and double-bounce scattering components are positive. The effectiveness of the proposedmethod is demonstrated by processing the real PolSAR data.
摘要：Independent clocks provide time tags for the precision orbit determination (POD) equipment and the radar altimeter onboard the HY-2A satellite, and a bias between POD data' time tag and corresponding range observation's time tag from the HY-2A altimeter exists. The time tag bias contributes a bias in the sea surface height observation due to the nonzero time rate of change of the HY-2A altimeter's height. A transponder for in-orbit radar altimeter calibration provides an approach to estimate the time tag bias. The altimeter receives the responding signals from the transponder and generates ranges. Pertinent reference ranges are obtained fromthe POD data and the transponder's coordinate. Using the ranges from the radar altimeter and the reference ranges, the time tag bias between the POD data and the altimeter observations can be estimated. During an in situ HY-2A altimeter calibration campaign using a reconstructive transponder from August 9, 2012, to July 20, 2014, 17 estimations of the altimeter's time tag bias were obtained. The preliminary results are presented in this letter.
摘要：Derivation of equivalent current systems (ECS) from a global magnetospheric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is very useful in studying magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, ground induction effects, and space weather forecast. In this study we introduce an improved method to derive the ECS from a global MHD model, which takes account of the obliqueness of the magnetic field lines. By comparing the ECS derived from this improved method and the previous method, we find that the main characteristics of the ECS derived from the two methods are generally consistent with each other, but the eastward-westward component of the geomagnetic perturbation calculated from the ECS derived from the improved method is much stronger than that from the previous method. We then compare the geomagnetic perturbation as a function of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle calculated from the ECS derived from both methods with the observations. The comparison indicates that the improved method can improve the performance of the simulation. Furthermore, it is found that the incomplete counterbalance of the geomagnetic effect produced by the ionospheric poloidal current and field-aligned current (FAC) contributes to most of the eastward-westward component of geomagnetic perturbation.
摘要：The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with D-st minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively;(2) two contrasting cases of how the CME flux-rope characteristics generate intense geomagnetic storms are found, which indicates that a southward flux-rope orientation is not a necessity for a strong geomagnetic storm;and (3) the unexpected 2015 March 17 intense geomagnetic storm resulted from the interaction between two successive CMEs plus the compression by a high-speed stream from behind, which is essentially the "perfect storm" scenario proposed by Liu et al. (i.e., a combination of circumstances results in an event of unusual magnitude), so the "perfect storm" scenario may not be as rare as the phrase implies.
摘要：We study the role of the coronal magnetic field configuration of an active region (AR) in determining the propagation direction of a coronal mass ejection (CME). The CME occurred in the AR 11944 (S09W01) near the disk center on 2014 January 7 and was associated with an X1.2 flare. A new CME reconstruction procedure based on a polarimetric technique is adopted, which shows that the CME changed its propagation direction by around 28 degrees in latitude within 2.5 R-circle dot and 43 degrees in longitude within 6.5 R-circle dot with respect to the CME source region. This significant non-radial motion is consistent with the finding of Mostl et al. We use nonlinear force-free field and potential field source surface extrapolation methods to determine the configurations of the coronal magnetic field. We also calculate the magnetic energy density distributions at different heights based on the extrapolations. Our results show that the AR coronal magnetic field has a strong influence on the CME propagation direction. This is consistent with the "channeling" by the AR coronal magnetic field itself, rather than deflection by nearby structures. These results indicate that the AR coronal magnetic field configuration has to be taken into account in order to determine CME propagation direction correctly.
摘要：A three-dimensional (3D) imager with a single-pixel detector and complementary intensity modulation of a digital micromirror device (DMD) array, which does not rely on scene raster scanning as in light detection and ranging (LIDAR) or on a two-dimensional array of sensors as used in time-of-flight (TOF) cameras, can not only capture full-color, high-quality images of real-life objects, but also recover the depth information and 3D reflectivity of the scene, reducing the required measurement dimension as well as the complexity, and cutting the cost of the detector array down to a single unit. The imager achieves spatial resolution using compressed sensing to exploit the sparsity of the signal. The disparity maps of the scene are reconstructed using sum of absolute or squared differences to reveal the depth information. This nonscanning, low-complexity 3D reflectivity imaging prototype may be of considerable value to various computer vision applications. (C) 2015 Optical Society of America