摘要：Herein, a nontoxic nanocomposite is synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a cationic polymer displaying strong antimicrobial activity against bacterial infection. These nanocomposites with a large concentration of positive charge promote their adsorption to bacterial membranes through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the synthesized nanocomposites with polyvalent and synergistic antimicrobial effects can effectively kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance. Morphological changes obtained by transmission electron microscope observation show that these nanocomposites can cause leakage and chaos of intracellular contents. Analysis of the antimicrobial mechanism confirms that the lethal action of nanocomposites against the bacteria started with disruption of the bacterial membrane, subsequent cellular internalization of the nanopartides, and inhibition of intracellular enzymatic activity. This novel antimicrobial material with good cytocompatibility promotes healing of infected wounds in diabetic rats, and has a promising future in the treatment of other infectious diseases.
摘要：Autotransporters deliver virulence factors to the bacterial surface by translocating an effector passenger domain through a membrane-anchored barrel structure. Although passenger domains are diverse, those found in enteric bacteria autotransporters, including AIDA-I in diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) and TibA in enterotoxigenic E. coli, are commonly glycosylated. We show that AIDA-I is heptosylated within the bacterial cytoplasm by autotransporter adhesin heptosyltransferase (AAH) and its paralogue AAH2. AIDA-I heptosylation determines DAEC adhesion to host cells. AAH/AAH2 define a bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferase (BAHT) family that contains ferric ion and adopts a dodecamer assembly. Structural analyses of the heptosylated TibA passenger domain reveal 35 heptose conjugates forming patterned and solenoid-like arrays on the surface of a beta helix. Additionally, CARC, the AIDA-like autotransporter from Citrobacter rodentium, is essential for colonization in mice and requires heptosylation by its cognate BAHT. Our study establishes a bacterial glycosylation system that regulates virulence and is essential for pathogenesis.
摘要：PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in immunodeficientmice. PTEN is localized to the nucleus in NSCs, binds to the PAX7 promoter through association with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB)/CREB binding protein (CBP) and inhibits PAX7 transcription. PTEN deficiency leads to the upregulation of PAX7, which in turn promotes oncogenic transformation of NSCs and instates 'aggressiveness' in human glioblastoma stem cells. In a large clinical database, we find increased PAX7 levels in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. Furthermore, we identify that mitomycin C selectively triggers apoptosis in NSCs with PTEN deficiency. Together, we uncover a potential mechanism of how PTEN safeguards NSCs, and establish a cellular platform to identify factors involved in NSC transformation, potentially permitting personalized treatment of glioblastoma.
摘要：Multicellular organisms have multiple homologs of the yeast ATG8 gene, but the differential roles of these homologs in autophagy during development remain largely unknown. Here we investigated structure/function relationships in the two C. elegans Atg8 homologs, LGG-1 and LGG-2. lgg-1 is essential for degradation of protein aggregates, while lgg-2 has cargo-specific and developmental-stage-specific roles in aggregate degradation. Crystallography revealed that the N-terminal tails of LGG-1 and LGG-2 adopt the closed and open form, respectively. LGG-1 and LGG-2 interact differentially with autophagy substrates and Atg proteins, many of which carry a LIR motif. LGG-1 and LGG-2 have structurally distinct substrate binding pockets that prefer different residues in the interacting LIR motif, thus influencing binding specificity. Lipidated LGG-1 and LGG-2 possess distinct membrane tethering and fusion activities, which may result from the N-terminal differences. Our study reveals the differential function of two ATG8 homologs in autophagy during C. elegans development.
摘要：Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by WRN protein deficiency. Here, we report on the generation of a human WS model in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Differentiation of WRN-null ESCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recapitulates features of premature cellular aging, a global loss of H3K9me3, and changes in heterochromatin architecture. We show that WRN associates with heterochromatin proteins SUV39H1 and HP1 alpha and nuclear lamina-heterochromatin anchoring protein LAP2 beta. Targeted knock-in of catalytically inactive SUV39H1 in wild-type MSCs recapitulates accelerated cellular senescence, resembling WRN-deficient MSCs. Moreover, decrease in WRN and heterochromatin marks are detected in MSCs from older individuals. Our observations uncover a role for WRN in maintaining heterochromatin stability and highlight heterochromatin disorganization as a potential determinant of human aging.
摘要：We report on thrombolysis acceleration of a nanomachine powered by light-driving delta-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor. It is composed of a mechanical device, locating device, energy storage device, and propeller. The rotory delta-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor acts as a mechanical device, which was obtained by reconstructing an original chromatophore extracted from Rhodospirillum rubrum. We found that the bioactivity of the F0F1-ATPase motor improved greatly after reconstruction. The zeta potential of the nanomachine is about -23.4 mV. Cytotoxicity induced by the nanomachine was measured using cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay. The A549 cells incubated with different fractional concentrations of the nanomachine within 48 h did not show obvious cytotoxicity. The locating device helps the nanomachine bind to the thrombi. Energy was easily stored by exposing the nanomachine to 600-nm-wavelength irradiation, which promoted activity of the motor. The rotation of the long propeller accelerated thrombolysis of a blood clot in vitro in the presence of urokinase (UK). This result was based on visual inspection and confirmed by a series of tests.
摘要：We demonstrate the use of cryogenic super-resolution correlative light and electron microscopy (csCLEM) to precisely determine the spatial relationship between proteins and their native cellular structures. Several fluorescent proteins (FPs) were found to be photoswitchable and emitted far more photons under our cryogenic imaging condition, resulting in higher localization precision which is comparable to ambient super-resolution imaging. Vitrified specimens were prepared by high pressure freezing and cryo-sectioning to maintain a near-native state with better fluorescence preservation. A 2-3-fold improvement of resolution over the recent reports was achieved due to the photon budget performance of screening out Dronpa and optimized imaging conditions, even with thin sections which is at a disadvantage when calculate the structure resolution from label density. We extended csCLEM to mammalian cells by introducing cryo-sectioning and observed good correlation of a mitochondrial protein with the mitochondrial outer membrane at nanometer resolution in three dimensions.
摘要：UBXD8 is a membrane protein that mediates endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein ubiquitination and degradation by interacting with p97NCP. Recently, lipid droplet proteomic studies show the lipid droplet localization of UBXD8. Besides, UBXD8 is also involved in triglyceride metabolism. However, the molecular mechanism by which UBXD8 regulates triglyceride metabolism is still obscure. Here we knocked out UBXD8 in mouse C2C12 myoblasts by CRISPR/Cas9. We selected 2 UBXD8 knockout (KO) clone cell lines from 26 possible KO clones. UBXD8 KO did not change the lipid droplet proteins expression pattern. However, UBXD8 KO led to the accumulation of neutral lipid. Furthermore, our data show that UBXD8 KO could alleviate palmitate-induced insulin resistance and rescue palmitate-induced apoptosis which was characterized by PARP splicing. In addition, the phenotype of palmitate-induced insulin resistance and apoptosis was reappeared after overexpressing UBXD8 in UBXD8 KO cells. These data suggested that UBXD8 plays an important role in lipid metabolism and its abnormity related insulin signal and apoptosis.
摘要：Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification that is involved in myriad cellar regulation and disease pathways. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) is an important player in the ubiquitin transfer pathway. Although many E2 structures are available, not all E2 families have known structures, and three-dimensional structures from fungal organisms other than yeast are lacking. We report here the crystal structure of UbcA1, which is a novel ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme identified from the edible and medicinal mushroom Agrocybe aegerita and displays potential antitumor properties. The protein belongs to the Ube2w family and shows similar biochemical characteristics to human Ube2w, including monomer-dimer equilibrium in solution, alpha-NH2 ubiquitin-transfer activity and a mechanism to recognize backbone atoms of intrinsically disordered N-termini in substrates. Its structure displays a unique C-terminal conformation with an orientation of helix alpha 3 that is completely different from the reported E2 structures but similar to a recently reported NMR ensemble of Ube2w. A mutagenesis study on this novel enzyme revealed that an intact C-terminus is significant for protein dimerization and enzymatic activity. As the first crystallized full-length protein of this family, UbcA1 may supersede the truncated X-ray structure of Ube2w (PDB entry 2A7L) as the representative structure of the Ube2w family.
摘要：Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are mostly used in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment. Unfortunately, treatment with Gefitinib for a period of time will result in drug resistance and cause treatment failure in clinic. Therefore, exploring novel compounds to overcome this resistance is urgently required. Here we investigated the antitumor effect of homoharringtonine (HHT), a natural compound extracted from Cephalotaxus harringtonia, on Gefitinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines in vitro and in vivo. NCI-H1975 cells with EGFR T790M mutation are more sensitive to HHT treatment compared with that of A549 cells with wild type EGFR. HHT inhibited cells growth, cell viability and colony formation, as well as induced cell apoptosis through mitochondria pathway. Furthermore, we explored the mechanism of HHT inhibition on NSCLC cells. Higher level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) existed in lung cancer patients and mutant EGFR and TGF beta signal requires the upregulation of IL-6 through the gp130/JAK pathway to overactive STAT3, an oncogenic protein which has been considered as a potential target for cancer therapy. HHT reversiblely inhibited IL-6-induced STAT3 Tyrosine 705 phosphorylation and reduced anti-apoptotic proteins expression. Gefitinib-resistant NSCLC xenograft tests also confirmed the antitumor effect of HHT in vivo. Consequently, HHT has the potential in Gefitinib-resistant NSCLC treatment.
摘要：Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is an abundant protein that is highly conserved in eukaryotes. However, its primary function is still not clear. Human TCTP interacts with the metazoan-specific eukaryotic elongation factor 1B delta (eEF1B delta) and inhibits its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, but the structural mechanism remains unknown. The interaction between TCTP and eEF1B delta was investigated by NMR titration, structure determination, paramagnetic relaxation enhancement, site-directed mutagenesis, isothermal titration calorimetry, and HADDOCK docking. We first demonstrated that the catalytic GEF domain of eEF1B delta is not responsible for binding to TCTP but rather a previously unnoticed central acidic region (CAR) domain in eEF1B delta. The mutagenesis data and the structural model of the TCTP-eEF1B delta CAR domain complex revealed the key binding residues. These residues are highly conserved in eukaryotic TCTPs and in eEF1B GEFs, including the eukaryotically conserved eEF1B delta, implying the interaction may be conserved in all eukaryotes. Interactions were confirmed between TCTP and the eEF1B delta CAR domain for human, fission yeast, and unicellular photosynthetic microalgal proteins, suggesting that involvement in protein translation through the conserved interaction with eEF1B represents a primary function of TCTP.
摘要：Toxic ribosome-inactivating proteins abolish cell viability by inhibiting protein synthesis. Ricin, a member of these lethal proteins, is a potential bioterrorism agent. Despite the grave challenge posed by these toxins to public health, post-exposure treatment for intoxication caused by these agents currently is unavailable. In this study, we report the identification of baicalin extracted from Chinese herbal medicine as a compound capable of inhibiting the activity of ricin. More importantly, post-exposure treatment with baicalin significantly increased the survival of mice poisoned by ricin. We determined the mechanism of action of baicalin by solving the crystal structure of its complex with the A chain of ricin (RTA) at 2.2 angstrom resolution, which revealed that baicalin interacts with two RTA molecules at a novel binding site by hydrogen bond networks and electrostatic force interactions, suggesting its role as molecular glue of the RTA. Further biochemical and biophysical analyses validated the amino acids directly involved in binding the inhibitor, which is consistent with the hypothesis that baicalin exerts its inhibitory effects by inducing RTA to form oligomers in solution, a mechanism that is distinctly different from previously reported inhibitors. This work offers promising leads for the development of therapeutics against ricin and probably other ribosome-inactivating proteins.
摘要：The structures of several Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal crystal proteins have been determined by crystallographic methods and a close relationship has been explicated between specific toxicities and conserved three-dimensional architectures. In this study, as a representative of the coleopteran- and hemipteran-specific Cry51A group, the complete structure of Cry51Aa1 protoxin has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.65 angstrom resolution. This is the first report of a coleopteran-active Bt insecticidal toxin with high structural similarity to the aerolysin-type beta-pore forming toxins (beta-FFTs). Moreover, study of featured residues and structural elements reveal their possible roles in receptor binding and pore formation events. This study provides new insights into the action of aerolysin-type (beta-PFTs from a structural perspective, and could be useful for the control of coleopteran and hemipteran insect pests in agricultures. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
摘要：The prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is a pressure-relief valve protecting the cell from lysing during acute osmotic downshock. When the membrane is stretched, MscL responds to the increase of membrane tension and opens a nonselective pore to about 30 angstrom wide, exhibiting a large unitary conductance of similar to 3 nS. A fundamental step toward understanding the gating mechanism of MscL is to decipher the molecular details of the conformational changes accompanying channel opening. By applying fusion-protein strategy and controlling detergent composition, we have solved the structures of an archaeal MscL homolog from Methanosarcina acetivorans trapped in the closed and expanded intermediate states. The comparative analysis of these two new structures reveals significant conformational rearrangements in the different domains of MscL. The large changes observed in the tilt angles of the two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2) fit well with the helix-pivoting model derived from the earlier geometric analyses based on the previous structures. Meanwhile, the periplasmic loop region transforms from a folded structure, containing an.-shaped loop and a short beta-hairpin, to an extended and partly disordered conformation during channel expansion. Moreover, a significant rotating and sliding of the N-terminal helix (N-helix) is coupled to the tilting movements of TM1 and TM2. The dynamic relationships between the N-helix and TM1/TM2 suggest that the N-helix serves as a membrane-anchored stopper that limits the tilts of TM1 and TM2 in the gating process. These results provide direct mechanistic insights into the highly coordinated movement of the different domains of the MscL channel when it expands.
摘要：The participation of large-conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels (BKs) in chloroquine (chloro)-induced relaxation of precontracted airway smooth muscle (ASM) is currently undefined. In this study we found that iberiotoxin (IbTx, a selective inhibitor of BKs) and chloro both completely blocked spontaneous transient outward currents (STOCs) in single mouse tracheal smooth muscle cells, which suggests that chloro might block BKs. We further found that chloro inhibited Ca2+ sparks and caffeine-induced global Ca2+ increases. Moreover, chloro can directly block single BK currents completely from the intracellular side and partially from the extracellular side. All these data indicate that the chloro-induced inhibition of STOCs is due to the blockade of chloro on both BKs and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). We also found that low concentrations of chloro resulted in additional contractions in tracheal rings that were precontracted by acetylcholine (ACH). Increases in chloro concentration reversed the contractile actions to relaxations. In the presence of IbTx or paxilline (pax), BK blockers, chloro-induced contractions were inhibited, although the high concentrations of chloro-induced relaxations were not affected. Taken together, our results indicate that chloro blocks BKs and RyRs, resulting in abolishment of STOCs and occurrence of contraction, the latter will counteract the relaxations induced by high concentrations of chloro.
摘要：The NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) bind conserved bacterial ligands, such as the bacterial rod protein PrgJ, and recruit NLR family CARD-containing protein 4 (NLRC4) as the inflammasome adapter to activate innate immunity. We found that the PrgJ-NAIP2-NLRC4 inflammasome is assembled into multisubunit disk-like structures through a unidirectional adenosine triphosphatase polymerization, primed with a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 per disk. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at subnanometer resolution revealed a similar to 90 degrees hinge rotation accompanying NLRC4 activation. Unlike in the related heptameric Apaf-1 apoptosome, in which each subunit needs to be conformationally activated by its ligand before assembly, a single PrgJ-activated NAIP2 initiates NLRC4 polymerization in a domino-like reaction to promote the disk assembly. These insights reveal the mechanism of signal amplification in NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasomes.
摘要：The lipid droplet (LD) is a cellular organelle that stores neutral lipids in cells and has been linked with metabolic disorders. Caenorhabditis elegans has many characteristics which make it an excellent animal model for studying LDs. However, unlike in mammalian cells, no LD structure-like/resident proteins have been identified in C. elegans, which has limited the utility of this model for the study of lipid storage and metabolism. Herein based on three lines of evidence, we identified that MDT-28 and DHS-3 previously identified in C. elegans LD proteome were two LD structure-like/resident proteins. First, MDT-28 and DHS-3 were found to be the two most abundant LD proteins in the worm. Second, the proteins were specifically localized to LDs and we identified the domains responsible for this targeting in both proteins. Third and most importantly, the depletion of MDT-28 induced LD clustering while DHS-3 deletion reduced triacylglycerol content (TAG). We further characterized the proteins finding that MDT-28 was ubiquitously expressed in the intestine, muscle, hypodermis, and embryos, whereas DHS-3 was expressed mainly in intestinal cells. Together, these two LD structure-like/resident proteins provide a basis for future mechanistic studies into the dynamics and functions of LDs in C. elegans. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
摘要：The insulin-mimetic and anti-diabetic properties of vanadium and related compounds have been well documented both in vitro and in vivo. However, the molecular basis of the link between vanadium and the insulin signaling pathway in diabetes mellitus is not fully described. We investigated the effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by oxidovanadium(IV) sulfate (VOSO4) on glucose uptake and the insulin signaling pathway in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Exposure of cells to VOSO4 (5-50 mu M) resulted in an increase in glucose uptake, insulin receptor (IR) and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and intracellular ROS generation. Using Western blot, we found that catalase and sodium formate, but not superoxide dismutase, prevented the increase of hydroxyl radical (center dot OH) generation and significantly decreased VOSO4-induced IR and Akt phosphorylation. These results suggest that VOSO4-induced center dot OH radical, which is a signaling species, promotes glucose uptake via the IR/Akt signaling pathway. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
摘要：The H3 histone variant CENP-A is an epigenetic marker critical for the centromere identity and function. However, the precise regulation of the spatiotemporal deposition and propagation of CENP-A at centromeres during the cell cycle is still poorly understood. Here, we show that CENP-A is phosphorylated at Ser68 during early mitosis by Cdk1. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation of Ser68 eliminates the binding of CENP-A to the assembly factor HJURP, thus preventing the premature loading of CENP-A to the centromere prior to mitotic exit. Because Cdk1 activity is at its minimum at the mitotic exit, the ratio of Cdk1/PP1 alpha activity changes in favor of Ser68 dephosphorylation, thus making CENP-A available for centromeric deposition by HJURP. Thus, we reveal that dynamic phosphorylation of CENP-A Ser68 orchestrates the spatiotemporal assembly of newly synthesized CENP-A at active centromeres during the cell cycle.
摘要：The fatty alk(a/e)ne biosynthesis pathway found in cyanobacteria gained tremendous attention in recent years as a promising alternative approach for biofuel production. Cyanobacterial aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (cADO), which catalyzes the conversion of C-n fatty aldehyde to its corresponding Cn-1 alk(a/e)ne, is a key enzyme in that pathway. Due to its low activity, alk(a/e)ne production by cADO is an inefficient process. Previous biochemical and structural investigations of cADO have provided some information on its catalytic reaction. However, the details of its catalytic processes remain unclear. Here we report five crystal structures of cADO from the Synechococcus elongates strain PCC7942 in both its iron-free and iron-bound forms, representing different states during its catalytic process. Structural comparisons and functional enzyme assays indicate that Glu144, one of the iron-coordinating residues, plays a vital role in the catalytic reaction of cADO. Moreover, the helix where Glu144 resides exhibits two distinct conformations that correlates with the different binding states of the di-iron center in cADO structures. Therefore, our results provide a structural explanation for the highly labile feature of cADO di-iron center, which we proposed to be related to its low enzymatic activity. On the basis of our structural and biochemical data, a possible catalytic process of cADO was proposed, which could aid the design of cADO with improved activity.