摘要：Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) is ubiquitous for photosynthesis and fluorescent sensor design. However, genetically coded PET sensors are underdeveloped, due to the lack of methods to site-specifically install PET probes on proteins. Here we describe a family of acid and Mn(III) turn-on fluorescent protein (FP) sensors, named iLovU, based on PET and the genetic incorporation of superior PET quenchers in the fluorescent flavoprotein iLov. Using the iLovU PET sensors, we monitored the cytoplasmic acidification process, and achieved Mn(III) fluorescence sensing for the first time. The iLovU sensors should be applicable for studying pH changes in living cells, monitoring biogentic Mn(III) in the environment, and screening for efficient manganese peroxidase, which is highly desirable for lignin degradation and biomass conversion. Our work establishes a platform for many more protein PET sensors, facilitates the de novo design of metalloenzymes harboring redox active residues, and expands our ability to probe protein conformational dynamics.
摘要：In designing large-sized volume type phased array coils for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields, e.g., 7T, minimizing electromagnetic coupling among array elements is technically challenging. A new decoupling method based on induced current compensation or elimination (ICE) for a microstrip line planar array has recently been proposed. In this study, an eight-channel transmit/receive volume array with ICE-decoupled loop elements was built and investigated to demonstrate its feasibility and robustness for human head imaging at 7T. Isolation between adjacent loop elements was better than - 25 dB with a human head load. The worst-case of the isolation between all of the elements was about - 17.5 dB. All of the MRI experiments were performed on a 7T whole-body human MR scanner. Images of the phantom and human head were acquired and g-factor maps were measured and calculated to evaluate the performance of the coil array. Compared with the conventional capacitively decoupled array, the ICE-decoupled array demonstrated improved parallel imaging ability and had a higher SNR. The experimental results indicate that the transceiver array design with ICE decoupling technique might be a promising solution to designing high performance transmit/receive coil arrays for human head imaging at ultrahigh fields.
摘要：Herein, a nontoxic nanocomposite is synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of a cationic polymer displaying strong antimicrobial activity against bacterial infection. These nanocomposites with a large concentration of positive charge promote their adsorption to bacterial membranes through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the synthesized nanocomposites with polyvalent and synergistic antimicrobial effects can effectively kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without the emergence of bacterial resistance. Morphological changes obtained by transmission electron microscope observation show that these nanocomposites can cause leakage and chaos of intracellular contents. Analysis of the antimicrobial mechanism confirms that the lethal action of nanocomposites against the bacteria started with disruption of the bacterial membrane, subsequent cellular internalization of the nanopartides, and inhibition of intracellular enzymatic activity. This novel antimicrobial material with good cytocompatibility promotes healing of infected wounds in diabetic rats, and has a promising future in the treatment of other infectious diseases.
摘要：Autotransporters deliver virulence factors to the bacterial surface by translocating an effector passenger domain through a membrane-anchored barrel structure. Although passenger domains are diverse, those found in enteric bacteria autotransporters, including AIDA-I in diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) and TibA in enterotoxigenic E. coli, are commonly glycosylated. We show that AIDA-I is heptosylated within the bacterial cytoplasm by autotransporter adhesin heptosyltransferase (AAH) and its paralogue AAH2. AIDA-I heptosylation determines DAEC adhesion to host cells. AAH/AAH2 define a bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferase (BAHT) family that contains ferric ion and adopts a dodecamer assembly. Structural analyses of the heptosylated TibA passenger domain reveal 35 heptose conjugates forming patterned and solenoid-like arrays on the surface of a beta helix. Additionally, CARC, the AIDA-like autotransporter from Citrobacter rodentium, is essential for colonization in mice and requires heptosylation by its cognate BAHT. Our study establishes a bacterial glycosylation system that regulates virulence and is essential for pathogenesis.
摘要：A novel amphiphilic homopolymer (PAGC(8)), containing two hydrophilic head groups and double hydrophobic tails in each repeat unit, has been prepared by solution polymerization and named as "a geminized amphiphilic homopolymer" in this paper, which is capable of self-assembling into various nanoobjects depending on the solution concentration and solvent properties. Characterization of the self-assembly behaviors was carried out by steady-state fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Particular emphasis was dedicated to the environmental responsiveness of the assemblies. The morphologies were observed to transform from micelle-type to vesicles on adding a certain amount of ethanol. It is noteworthy that the assemblies were able to trap hydrophilic (rhodamine B) and hydrophobic (Sudan Red) molecules. Subsequently different nanoobjects were found after the encapsulation. To probe the effect of the topological structure on the self-assembly behaviors, the properties of an additional homopolymer with single charge pendant architecture on the backbone were investigated for comparison. Significant differences in structure between the two architectures brought out remarkable variations in aggregates, which were non-responsive to the solvent environment, or encapsulation of molecules. Based on the experimental results, we proposed a possible mechanism of the morphological transitions of the assemblies.
摘要：A method for site-specific and high yield modification of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMVCP) utilizing a genetic code expanding technology and copper free cycloaddition reaction has been established, and biotin-functionalized virus-like particles were built by the self-assembly of the protein monomers.
摘要：Shiga-like toxins (Stxs), produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli, are a major virulence factor involved in severe diseases in human and animals. These toxins are ribosome-inactivating proteins, and treatment for diseases caused by them is not available. Therefore, there is an urgent need for agents capable of effectively targeting this lethal toxin. In this study, we identified baicalin, a flavonoid compound used in Chinese traditional medicine, as a compound against Shiga-like toxin 2 (Stx2). We found that baicalin significantly improves renal function and reduces Stx2-induced lethality in mice. Further experiments revealed that baicalin induces the formation of oligomers by the toxin by direct binding. We also identified the residues important for such interactions and analyzed their roles in binding baicalin by biophysical and biochemical analyses. Our results establish baicalin as a candidate compound for the development of therapeutics against diseases caused by Stxs.
摘要：PURPOSE. To assess the cortical structure and cerebral blood flow changes in the brain of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS. High-resolution anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL)-MRI were performed in 23 POAG patients and 29 controls. Patients were further divided into early-moderate and advanced groups based on mean deviation (MD) cutoff of 12 dB. A baseline scan was obtained and repeated during visual stimulation to the central preserved visual field in the more affected eye of POAG patients and a randomly selected eye of controls. Gray matter volume (GMV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) throughout the whole brain were compared between patients and controls. RESULTS. Compared to controls, a region with significant reduction of GMV was detected in the anterior calcarine fissure of advanced POAG patients (P < 0.001, voxels = 503, 1698 mm3). Patients with early-moderate POAG had resting CBF similar to that of controls. However, a region with marked CBF decrease was detected in the anterior calcarine fissure of advanced POAG patients (P < 0.001, voxels = 1687, 13,496 mm(3)). The region with CBF reduction in advanced POAG showed good colocalization with the region with GMV decrease in this group. Following visual stimulation, patients with advanced POAG showed significantly lower increase in CBF in the occipital lobes (P < 0.001, voxels = 112, 896 mm(3)) as compared to controls (P < 0.001, voxels = 1880, 15,040 mm(3)) and early-moderate POAG (P < 0.001, voxels = 2233, 17,864 mm(3)). CONCLUSIONS. Primary open-angle glaucoma patients demonstrate a disease severity-dependent retinotopic pattern of cortical atrophy and CBF abnormalities in the visual cortex. Cerebral blood flow may be a potential biomarker for the brain involvement in glaucoma.
摘要：PTEN is a tumour suppressor frequently mutated in many types of cancers. Here we show that targeted disruption of PTEN leads to neoplastic transformation of human neural stem cells (NSCs), but not mesenchymal stem cells. PTEN-deficient NSCs display neoplasm-associated metabolic and gene expression profiles and generate intracranial tumours in immunodeficientmice. PTEN is localized to the nucleus in NSCs, binds to the PAX7 promoter through association with cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB)/CREB binding protein (CBP) and inhibits PAX7 transcription. PTEN deficiency leads to the upregulation of PAX7, which in turn promotes oncogenic transformation of NSCs and instates 'aggressiveness' in human glioblastoma stem cells. In a large clinical database, we find increased PAX7 levels in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma. Furthermore, we identify that mitomycin C selectively triggers apoptosis in NSCs with PTEN deficiency. Together, we uncover a potential mechanism of how PTEN safeguards NSCs, and establish a cellular platform to identify factors involved in NSC transformation, potentially permitting personalized treatment of glioblastoma.
摘要：Protein nanocages (PNCs) have been recognized as a promising platform for nanomedicine innovation. Real-time in vivo tracking of PNCs can provide critically important information for the development of PNC-based diagnostics and therapeutics. Here we demonstrate a general strategy for monitoring the behaviors of PNCs in vivo by encapsulating a Ag2S quantum dot (QD) with fluorescence in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) inside the PNC, using simian virus 40 (SV40) PNC (PNCSV40) as a model. Benefiting from the high spatiotemporal resolution and deep tissue penetration of NIR-II fluorescence imaging, the dynamic distribution of the PNCSV40 in living mice was tracked in real time with high fidelity, and adopting the PEGylation strategy, surface chemistry-dependent in vivo behaviors of PNCSV40 were clearly revealed. This study represents the first evidence of real-time tracking of the intrinsic behaviors of PNCs in vivo without interference in PNC-host interactions by encapsulating nanoprobes inside. The as-described imaging strategy will facilitate the study of interactions between exogenously introduced PNCs and host body and prompt the development of future protein-based drugs, sensors, and high-efficacy targeted delivery systems.
摘要：Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein commonly found in human serum, with elevated CEA levels being linked to the progression of a wide range of tumors. It is currently used as a biomarker for malign tumors such as lung cancer and colorectal cancer [Urol Oncol: Semin Orig Invest 352: 644-648, 2013 and Lung Cancer 80: 45-49, 2013]. However, due to its low specificity in clinical applications, CEA can be used for monitoring only, rather than tumor diagnosis. The function of many glycoproteins is critically dependent on their glycosylation pattern, which in turn has the potential to serve in tumor detection. However, little is known about the detailed glycan patterns of CEA. Methods: To determine these patterns, we isolated and purified CEA proteins from human tumor tissues using immunoaffinity chromatography. The glycan patterns of CEA were then analyzed using a Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry3 (MALDI-TOF-MS3) approach. Results: We identified 61 glycoforms in tumor tissue, where CEA is upregulated. These glycosylation entities were identified as bi-antennary, tri-antennary and tetra-antennary structures carrying sialic acid and fucose residues, and include a multitude of glycans previously not reported for CEA. Conclusion: Our findings should facilitate a more precise tumor prediction than currently possible, ultimately resulting in improved tumor diagnosis and treatment.
摘要：Background: Bladder cancer (BC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide. The expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) in urine samples of BC patients have been demonstrated to be different from healthy people. Several studies focusing on the diagnostic value of urinary miRNAs for BC detection have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to access the overall diagnostic accuracy comprehensively and quantitatively. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and CNKI were searched without language restrictions for studies about the diagnostic value of miRNAs for BC. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR, respectively), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated using the random effects model. The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve was also generated and the area under the curve (AUC) was also reckoned to assess the diagnosis accuracy. Besides, Chi-square test and I-2 test were used to assess the heterogeneity between studies. Publication bias was evaluated by the Deeks' funnel plot asymmetry test. Results: Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis, with a total of 1,128 BC patients and 1,057 matched controls. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR and DOR of urinary miRNAs for the diagnosis of BC were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.67-0.75), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.70-0.79), 2.8 (95% CI: 2.3-3.4), 0.39 (95% CI: 0.33-0.46) and 7 (95% CI: 5-10), respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.79. Subgroup analyses suggested that the ethnicity and miRNA profiling had an obvious influence on the diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: The current analysis suggested that urinary miRNA panels may be a promising noninvasive biomarker in the diagnosis of BC.
摘要：Background: Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is one of the most studied candidate genes related to essential hypertension (EH) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Some studies have focused on the relationship between -344C/T polymorphism (rs1799998) in the CYP11B2 gene and LVH, but the results are controversial. This meta-analysis is purposed to reveal the relationship between the -344C/T and the left ventricular structure and function, including left ventricular end diastolic dimension (LVEDD), left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD), left ventricular mass/left ventricular mass index (LVM/LVMI), left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT), and interventricular septal wall thickness (IVS). Methods: A literature search of PubMed and Embase databases was conducted on articles published before January 27, 2014. The odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Heterogeneity analyses were performed using meta-regression. Tests for publication bias were also performed and biased studies should be removed from subsequent analyses. Results: There were 20 studies with a total of 6780 subjects meeting the inclusion criteria. The main finding was that concentration levels of LVEDD and LVESD were higher in CC homozygous individuals than in TT homozygous individuals in the whole group. In the Asian subgroup, TT homozygous individuals had larger IVS than CC homozygous individuals. In the Caucasian normotension subgroup, CC homozygous individuals had larger LVM/LVMI than TT homozygous individuals. In the Asian essential hypertension subgroup, TT homozygous individuals had larger LVPWT values than CC homozygous individuals. Conclusions: The present findings support the hypothesis that CC homozygous individuals may have greater left ventricular diameters (LVEDD and LVESD) regardless of their ethnicities or physical conditions.
摘要：Background Cilostazol, an anti-platelet drug for treating coronary heart disease, has been reported to modulate immune cell functions. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) have been found to participate in the progression of atherosclerosis mainly through interferon a (IFN-alpha) production. Whether cilostazol influences pDCs activation is still not clear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of cilostazol on cell activation and antigen presentation of pDCs in vitro in this study. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated by Ficoll centrifugation and pDCs sorted by flow cytometry were used in this study. After pretreated with cilostazol for 2 h, cells were stimulated with CpG-A, R848 or virus for 6 h or 20 h, or stimulated with CpG-B for 48 h and then co-cultured with naive T cell for five days. Cytokines in supernatant and intracellular cytokines were analyzed by ELISA or flow cytometry respectively. Results Our data indicated that cilostazol could inhibit IFN-alpha and tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) production from pDCs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the ability of priming naive T cells of pDCs was also impaired by cilostazol. The inhibitory effect was not due to cell killing since the viability of pDCs did not change upon cilostazol treatment. Conclusion Cilostazol inhibits pDCs cell activation and antigen presentation in vitro, which may explain how cilostazol protects against atherosclerosis.
摘要：A widely appreciated aspect of developmental robustness is pattern formation in proportion to size. But how such scaling features emerge dynamically remains poorly understood. Here we generate a data set of the expression profiles of six gap genes in Drosophila melanogaster embryos that differ significantly in size. Expression patterns exhibit size-dependent dynamics both spatially and temporally. We uncover a dynamic emergence of under-scaling in the posterior, accompanied by reduced expression levels of gap genes near the middle of large embryos. Simulation results show that a size-dependent Bicoid gradient input can lead to reduced Kruppel expression that can have long-range and dynamic effects on gap gene expression in the posterior. Thus, for emergence of scaled patterns, the entire embryo may be viewed as a single unified dynamic system where maternally derived size-dependent information interpreted locally can be propagated in space and time as governed by the dynamics of a gene regulatory network.
摘要：While a conserved tyrosine (Tyr) is found in oxidases, the roles of phenol ring pK(a) and reduction potential in O-2 reduction have not been defined despite many years of research on numerous oxidases and their models. These issues represent major challenges in our understanding of O-2 reduction mechanism in bioenergetics. Through genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acid analogs of Tyr, with progressively decreasing pKa of the phenol ring and increasing reduction potential, in the active site of a functional model of oxidase in myoglobin, a linear dependence of both the O-2 reduction activity and the fraction of H2O formation with the pKa of the phenol ring has been established. By using these unnatural amino acids as spectroscopic probe, we have provided conclusive evidence for the location of a Tyr radical generated during reaction with H2O2, by the distinctive hyperfine splitting patterns of the halogenated tyrosines and one of its deuterated derivatives incorporated at the 33 position of the protein. These results demonstrate for the first time that enhancing the proton donation ability of the Tyr enhances the oxidase activity, allowing the Tyr analogs to augment enzymatic activity beyond that of natural Tyr.
摘要：What is a number? The number sense hypothesis suggests that numerosity is "a primary visual property" like color, contrast, or orientation. However, exactly what attribute of a stimulus is the primary visual property and determines numbers in the number sense? To verify the invariant nature of numerosity perception, we manipulated the numbers of items connected/enclosed in arbitrary and irregular forms while controlling for low-level features (e.g., orientation, color, and size). Subjects performed discrimination, estimation, and equality judgment tasks in a wide range of presentation durations and across small and large numbers. Results consistently show that connecting/enclosing items led to robust numerosity underestimation, with the extent of underestimation increasing monotonically with the number of connected/enclosed items. In contrast, grouping based on color similarity had no effect on numerosity judgment. We propose that numbers or the primitive units counted in numerosity perception are influenced by topological invariants, such as connectivity and the inside/outside relationship. Beyond the behavioral measures, neural tuning curves to numerosity in the intraparietal sulcus were obtained using functional MRI adaptation, and the tuning curves showed that numbers represented in the intraparietal sulcus were strongly influenced by topology.
摘要：Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by WRN protein deficiency. Here, we report on the generation of a human WS model in human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Differentiation of WRN-null ESCs to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) recapitulates features of premature cellular aging, a global loss of H3K9me3, and changes in heterochromatin architecture. We show that WRN associates with heterochromatin proteins SUV39H1 and HP1 alpha and nuclear lamina-heterochromatin anchoring protein LAP2 beta. Targeted knock-in of catalytically inactive SUV39H1 in wild-type MSCs recapitulates accelerated cellular senescence, resembling WRN-deficient MSCs. Moreover, decrease in WRN and heterochromatin marks are detected in MSCs from older individuals. Our observations uncover a role for WRN in maintaining heterochromatin stability and highlight heterochromatin disorganization as a potential determinant of human aging.
摘要：We report on thrombolysis acceleration of a nanomachine powered by light-driving delta-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor. It is composed of a mechanical device, locating device, energy storage device, and propeller. The rotory delta-subunit-free F0F1-ATPase motor acts as a mechanical device, which was obtained by reconstructing an original chromatophore extracted from Rhodospirillum rubrum. We found that the bioactivity of the F0F1-ATPase motor improved greatly after reconstruction. The zeta potential of the nanomachine is about -23.4 mV. Cytotoxicity induced by the nanomachine was measured using cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay. The A549 cells incubated with different fractional concentrations of the nanomachine within 48 h did not show obvious cytotoxicity. The locating device helps the nanomachine bind to the thrombi. Energy was easily stored by exposing the nanomachine to 600-nm-wavelength irradiation, which promoted activity of the motor. The rotation of the long propeller accelerated thrombolysis of a blood clot in vitro in the presence of urokinase (UK). This result was based on visual inspection and confirmed by a series of tests.
摘要：We demonstrate the use of cryogenic super-resolution correlative light and electron microscopy (csCLEM) to precisely determine the spatial relationship between proteins and their native cellular structures. Several fluorescent proteins (FPs) were found to be photoswitchable and emitted far more photons under our cryogenic imaging condition, resulting in higher localization precision which is comparable to ambient super-resolution imaging. Vitrified specimens were prepared by high pressure freezing and cryo-sectioning to maintain a near-native state with better fluorescence preservation. A 2-3-fold improvement of resolution over the recent reports was achieved due to the photon budget performance of screening out Dronpa and optimized imaging conditions, even with thin sections which is at a disadvantage when calculate the structure resolution from label density. We extended csCLEM to mammalian cells by introducing cryo-sectioning and observed good correlation of a mitochondrial protein with the mitochondrial outer membrane at nanometer resolution in three dimensions.