摘要：Three families of Bacillus cyclic lipopeptides-surfactins, iturins, and fengycins-have well-recognized potential uses in biotechnology and biopharmaceutical applications. This study outlines the isolation and characterization of locillomycins, a novel family of cyclic lipopeptides produced by Bacillus subtilis 916. Elucidation of the locillomycin structure revealed several molecular features not observed in other Bacillus lipopeptides, including a unique nonapeptide sequence and macrocyclization. Locillomycins are active against bacteria and viruses. Biochemical analysis and gene deletion studies have supported the assignment of a 38-kb gene cluster as the locillomycin biosynthetic gene cluster. Interestingly, this gene cluster encodes 4 proteins (LocA, LocB, LocC, and LocD) that form a hexamodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase to biosynthesize cyclic nonapeptides. Genome analysis and the chemical structures of the end products indicated that the biosynthetic pathway exhibits two distinct features: (i) a nonlinear hexamodular assembly line, with three modules in the middle utilized twice and the first and last two modules used only once and (ii) several domains that are skipped or optionally selected.
摘要：Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks serve as a powerful tool for unraveling protein functions, disease-gene and disease-disease associations. However, a direct strategy for integrating protein interaction, protein function and diseases is still absent. Moreover, the interrelated relationships among these three levels are poorly understood. Here we present a novel systematic method to integrate protein interaction, function, and disease networks. We first identified topological modules in human protein interaction data using the network topological algorithm (NeTA) we previously developed. The resulting modules were then associated with functional terms using Gene Ontology to obtain functional modules. Finally, disease modules were constructed by associating the modules with OMIM and GWAS. We found that most topological modules have cohesive structure, significant pathway annotations and good modularity. Most functional modules (70.6%) fully cover corresponding topological modules, and most disease modules (88.5%) are fully covered by the corresponding functional modules. Furthermore, we identified several protein modules of interest that we describe in detail, which demonstrate the power of our integrative approach. This approach allows us to link genes, and pathways with their corresponding disorders, which may ultimately help us to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease.
摘要：Protection from oxidative stress and efficient redox regulation are essential for malarial parasites which have to grow and multiply rapidly in pro-oxidant rich environments. Therefore, redox active proteins currently belong to the most attractive antimalarial drug targets. The glutathione S-transferase from Plasmodium falciparum (PfGST) is a redox active protein displaying a peculiar dimer-tetramer transition that causes full enzyme-inactivation. This distinct structural feature is absent in mammalian GST isoenzyme counterparts. A flexible loop between residues 113-119 has been reported to be necessary for this tetramerization process. However, here we present structural data of a modified PfGST lacking loop 113-119 at 1.9 angstrom resolution. Our results clearly show that this loop is not essential for the formation of stable tetramers. Moreover we present for the first time the structures of both, the inactive and tetrameric state at 1.7 angstrom and the active dimeric state in complex with reduced glutathione at 2.4 angstrom resolution. Surprisingly, the structure of the inactive tetrameric state reveals a novel non-substrate binding-site occupied by a 2-(N-morpholino) ethane sulfonic acid (MES) molecule in each monomer. Although it is known that the PfGST has the ability to bind lipophilic anionic ligands, the location of the PfGST ligand-binding site remained unclear up to now. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
摘要：Human BST-2 inhibits HIV-1 replication by tethering nascent virions to the cell surface. HIV-1 codes Vpu that counteracts BST-2 by down-regulating this restriction factor from the cell surface. This important function makes Vpu a potential therapeutic target. Yet, no agents have been reported to block Vpu from antagonizing BST-2. In this study, we report a small molecule compound IMB-LA that abrogates the function of Vpu and thereby strongly suppresses HIV-1 replication by sensitizing the virus to BST-2 restriction. Further studies revealed that IMB-LA specifically inhibits Vpu-mediated degradation of BST-2 and restores the expression of BST-2 at the cell surface. Although IMB-LA does not prevent Vpu from interacting with BST-2 or beta-TrCP2-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase, sorting of BST-2 into lysosomes in Vpu-expressing cells is blocked by IMB-LA. Most importantly, HIV-1 release and infection is inhibited by IMB-LA only in BST-2-expressing cells. In summary, results herein demonstrated that IMB-LA could specifically inhibit the degradation of BST-2 induced by Vpu, and impair HIV-1 replication in a BST-2 dependent manner, suggesting the feasibility of utilizing small molecule compounds to disable the antagonist function of Vpu and thereby expose HIV-1 to the restriction by BST-2.
摘要：Aberrant expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is associated with various human cancers. However, the role of lncRNAs in Bcr-Abl-mediated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is unknown. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of lncRNAs in human CML cells using an lncRNA cDNA microarray and identified an lncRNA termed lncRNA-BGL3 that acted as a key regulator of Bcr-Abl-mediated cellular transformation. Notably, we observed that lncRNA-BGL3 was highly induced in response to disruption of Bcr-Abl expression or by inhibiting Bcr-Abl kinase activity in K562 cells and leukemic cells derived from CML patients. Ectopic expression of lncRNA-BGL3 sensitized leukemic cells to undergo apoptosis and inhibited Bcr-Abl-induced tumorigenesis. Furthermore, transgenic (TG) mice expressing lncRNA-BGL3 were generated. We found that TG expression of lncRNA-BGL3 alone in mice was sufficient to impair primary bone marrow transformation by Bcr-Abl. Interestingly, we identified that lncRNA-BGL3 was a target of miR-17, miR-93, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-106a and miR-106b, microRNAs that repress mRNA of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). Further experiments demonstrated that lncRNA-BGL3 functioned as a competitive endogenous RNA for binding these microRNAs to cross-regulate PTEN expression. Additionally, our experiments have begun to address the mechanism of how lncRNA-BGL3 is regulated in the leukemic cells and showed that Bcr-Abl repressed lncRNA-BGL3 expression through c-Myc-dependent DNA methylation. Taken together, these results reveal that Bcr-Abl-mediated cellular transformation critically requires silence of tumor-suppressor lncRNA-BGL3 and suggest a potential strategy for the treatment of Bcr-Abl-positive leukemia.
摘要：Chinese medicine, Fuzhenghuayu (FZHY), appears to prevent fibrosis progression and improve liver function in humans. Here we found that FZHY enhanced hepatocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). After treatment with FZHY, albumin expression was consistently increased during differentiation and maturation process, and expression of metabolizing enzymes and transporter were also increased. Importantly, expression of mesenchymal cell and cholangiocyte marker was significantly reduced by treatment with FZHY, indicating that one possible mechanism of FZHY's role is to inhibit the formation of mesenchymal cells and cholangiocytes. Edu-labelled flow cytometric analysis showed that the percentage of the Edu positive cells was increased in the treated cells. These results indicate that the enhanced proliferation involved hepatocytes rather than another cell type. Our investigations further revealed that these enhancements by FZHY are mediated through activation of canonical Wnt and ERK pathways and inhibition of Notch pathway. Thus, FZHY not only promoted hepatocyte differentiation and maturation, but also enhanced hepatocyte proliferation. These results demonstrate that FZHY appears to represent an excellent therapeutic agent for the treatment of liver fibrosis, and that FZHY treatment can enhance our efforts to generate mature hepatocytes with proliferative capacity for cell-based therapeutics and for pharmacological and toxicological studies.
摘要：API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method.