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  • Discriminating between Thermal and Nonthermal Cosmic Relic Neutrinos through Annual Modulation at PTOLEMY

    分类: 物理学 >> 普通物理:统计和量子力学,量子信息等 提交时间: 2017-11-10

    摘要:If massive neutrinos are Dirac particles, the proposed PTOLEMY experiment will hopefully be able to discover cosmic neutrino background via e+3H ! 3He+e􀀀 with a capture rate of 􀀀D 4 yr􀀀1. Recently, it has been pointed out that right-handed com-ponents of Dirac neutrinos could also be copiously produced in the early Universe and become an extra thermal or nonthermal ingredient of cosmic relic neutrinos, enhancing the capture rate to 􀀀D 5:1 yr􀀀1 or 􀀀D 6:1 yr􀀀1. In this work, we investigate the possibility to distinguish between thermal and nonthermal spectra of cosmic relic neu-trinos by measuring the annual modulation of the capture rate. For neutrino masses of 0:1 eV, we have found the amplitude of annual modulation in the standard case is M 0:05%, which will be increased to 0:1% and 0:15% in the presence of additional thermal and nonthermal right-handed neutrinos, respectively. The future detection of such a modulation will be helpful in understanding the Majorana or Dirac nature of massive neutrinos.

  • Electroweak Vacuum Stability and Diphoton Excess at 750 GeV

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-20

    摘要:Recently, both ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have announced their observations of an excess of diphoton events around the invariant mass of 750 GeV with a local significance of 3.6σ and 2.6σ, respectively. In this paper, we interpret the diphoton excess as the on-shell production of a real singlet scalar in the pp→S→γγ channel. To accommodate the observed production rate, we further introduce a vector-like fermion F, which is carrying both color and electric charges. The viable regions of model parameters are explored for this simple extension of the Standard Model (SM). Moreover, we revisit the problem of electroweak vacuum stability in the same scenario, and find that the requirement for the electroweak vacuum stability up to high energy scales imposes serious constraints on the Yukawa coupling of the vector-like fermion and the quartic couplings of the SM Higgs boson and the new singlet scalar. Consequently, a successful explanation for the diphoton excess and the absolute stability of electroweak vacuum cannot be achieved simultaneously in this economical setup.

  • 750 GeV Diphoton Excess from Cascade Decay

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-19

    摘要:Motivated by the recent 750 GeV diphoton excess observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations, we propose a simplified model to explain this excess. Model-independent constraints and predictions on the allowed couplings for generating the observed diphoton excess are studied in detail, and the compatibility between Run 1 and Run 2 data is considered simultaneously. We demonstrate that the possible four photon signal can be used to test this scenario, and also explain the interesting deviation for a diphoton mass of about 1.6 TeV by ATLAS, where the local significance is 2.8 σ. Meanwhile, this scenario also provides us with the dark matter candidates.

  • Theoretical Results on Neutrinos

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-14

    摘要:In this talk, I first summarize our current knowledge about the fundamental properties of neutrinos and emphasize the remaining unsolved problems in neutrino physics. Then, recent theoretical results on neutrino mass models are introduced. Different approaches to understanding tiny neutrino masses, lepton flavor mixing and CP violation are presented. Finally, I report briefly some new progress in the studies of astrophysical neutrinos, including keV sterile neutrinos, supernova neutrinos and ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrinos.

  • Next-to-next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to $\chi_c0,2\rightarrow \gamma\gamma$

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-14

    摘要:We calculate the next-to-next-to-leading-order (NNLO) perturbative corrections to P-wave quarkonia annihilation decay to two photons, in the framework of nonrelativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization. The order-α2s short-distance coefficients associated with each helicity amplitude are presented in a semi-analytic form, including the "light-by-light" contributions. With substantial NNLO corrections, we find disquieting discrepancy when confronting our state-of-the-art predictions with the latest \textsf{BESIII} measurements, especially fail to account for the measured χc2→γγwidth. Incorporating the effects of spin-dependent forces would even exacerbate the situation, since it lifts the degeneracy between the nonperturbative NRQCD matrix elements of χc0 and χc2 toward the wrong direction. We also present the order-α2s predictions to χb0,2→γγ, which await the future experimental test.

  • Quasi Distribution Amplitude of Heavy Quarkonia

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-14

    摘要:The recently-proposed quasi distributions point out a promising direction for lattice QCD to investigate the light-cone correlators, such as parton distribution functions (PDF) and distribution amplitudes (DA), directly in the x-space. Owing to its excessive simplicity, the heavy quarkonium can serve as an ideal theoretical laboratory to ascertain certain features of quasi-DA. In the framework of non-relativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization, we compute the order-αs correction to both light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDA) and quasi-DA associated with the lowest-lying quarkonia, with the transverse momentum UV cutoff interpreted as the renormalization scale. We confirm analytically that the quasi-DA of a quarkonium does reduce to the respective LCDA in the infinite-momentum limit. We also observe that, provided that the momentum of a charmonium reaches about 2-3 times its mass, the quasi-DAs already converge to the LCDAs to a decent level. These results might provide some useful guidance for the future lattice study of the quasi distributions.

  • Relic Right-handed Dirac Neutrinos and Implications for Detection of Cosmic Neutrino Background

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-14

    摘要:It remains to be determined experimentally if massive neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac particles. In this connection, it has been recently suggested that the detection of cosmic neutrino background of left-handed neutrinos νL and right-handed antineutrinos ν¯¯¯R in future experiments of neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (e.g., νe+3H→3He+e− for the PTOLEMY experiment) is likely to distinguish between Majorana and Dirac neutrinos, since the capture rate is twice larger in the former case. In this paper, we investigate the possible impact of right-handed neutrinos on the capture rate, assuming that massive neutrinos are Dirac particles and both right-handed neutrinos νR and left-handed antineutrinos ν¯¯¯L can be efficiently produced in the early Universe. It turns out that the capture rate can be enhanced at most by 28% due to the presence of relic νR and ν¯¯¯L with a total number density of 95 cm−3, which should be compared to the number density 336 cm−3 of cosmic neutrino background. The enhancement has actually been limited by the latest cosmological and astrophysical bounds on the effective number of neutrino generations Neff=3.14+0.44−0.43 at the 95% confidence level. For illustration, two possible scenarios have been proposed for thermal production of right-handed neutrinos in the early Universe.

  • Further Study of the Frampton-Glashow-Yanagida Model for Neutrino Masses, Flavor Mixing and Baryon Number Asymmetry

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-13

    摘要:In light of the latest neutrino oscillation data, we revisit the minimal scenario of type-I seesaw model, in which only two heavy right-handed Majorana neutrinos are introduced to account for both tiny neutrino masses and the baryon number asymmetry in our Universe. In this framework, we carry out a systematic study of the Frampton-Glashow-Yanagida ansatz by taking into account the renormalization-group running of neutrino mixing parameters and the flavor effects in leptogenesis. We demonstrate that the normal neutrino mass ordering is disfavored even in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with a large value of tanβ, for which the running effects could be significant. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the original scenario with a hierarchical mass spectrum of heavy Majorana neutrinos contradicts with the upper bound derived from a naturalness criterion, and the resonant mechanism with nearly-degenerate heavy Majorana neutrinos can be a possible way out.

  • Finite volume corrections to the binding energy of the X(3872)

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-13

    摘要:The quark mass dependence of hadrons is an important input for lattice calculations. We investigate the light quark mass dependence of the binding energy of the X(3872) in a finite box to next-to-leading order in an effective field theory for the X(3872) with perturbative pions (XEFT). At this order, the quark mass dependence is determined by a quark mass-dependent contact interaction in addition to the one-pion exchange. While there is only a moderate sensitivity to the light quark masses in the region up to twice their physical value, the finite volume effects are significant already at box length as large as 20 fm.

  • Can NRQCD Explain the $\gamma\gamma^* \to \eta_c$ Transition Form Factor Data?

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-13

    摘要:Unlike the bewildering situation in the γγ∗→π form factor, a widespread view is that perturbative QCD can decently account for the recent \textsc{BaBar} measurement of γγ∗→ηc transition form factor. The next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) perturbative correction to the γγ∗→ηc,b form factor, is investigated in the NRQCD factorization framework for the first time. As a byproduct, we obtain by far the most precise order-α2s NRQCD matching coefficient for the ηc,b→γγ process. After including the substantial negative order-α2s correction, the good agreement between NRQCD prediction and the measured γγ∗→ηc form factor is completely ruined over a wide range of momentum transfer squared. This eminent discrepancy casts some doubts on the applicability of NRQCD approach to hard exclusive reactions involving charmonium.

  • Relativistic correction to gluon fragmentation function into pseudoscalar quarkonium

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-06

    摘要:Inspired by the recent measurements of the ηc meson production at LHC, we investigate the relativistic correction effect for the fragmentation function of the gluon into ηc, which constitutes the crucial nonperturbative elements to understand ηc production at high pT. Employing three distinct methods, we calculate the leading relativistic correction to the g→ηc fragmentation function in the NRQCD factorization framework, as well as verify the existing NLO result for the c→ηc fragmentation function. We also study the evolution behavior of these fragmentation functions with the aid of DGLAP equation.

  • Majorana Neutrino Masses from Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decays and Lepton-Number-Violating Meson Decays

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-06

    摘要:The Schechter-Valle theorem states that a positive observation of neutrinoless double-beta (0νββ) decays implies a finite Majorana mass term for neutrinos when any unlikely fine-tuning or cancellation is absent. In this note, we reexamine the quantitative impact of the Schechter-Valle theorem, and find that current experimental lower limits on the half-lives of 0νββ-decaying nuclei have placed a restrictive upper bound on the Majorana neutrino mass |δmeeν|<7.43×10−29 eV radiatively generated at the four-loop level. Furthermore, we generalize this quantitative analysis of 0νββ decays to that of the lepton-number-violating (LNV) meson decays M−→M′++ℓ−α+ℓ−β (for α, β = e or μ). Given the present upper limits on these rare LNV decays, we have derived the loop-induced Majorana neutrino masses |δmeeν|<9.7×10−18 eV, |δmeμν|<1.6×10−15 eV and |δmμμν|<1.0×10−12 eV from K−→π++e−+e−, K−→π++e−+μ− and K−→π++μ−+μ−, respectively. A partial list of radiative neutrino masses from the LNV decays of D, Ds and B mesons is also given.

  • Getting the Most from Detection of Galactic Supernova Neutrinos in Future Large Liquid-Scintillator Detectors

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-05

    摘要:Future large liquid-scintillator detectors can be implemented to observe neutrinos from a core-collapse supernova (SN) in our galaxy in various reaction channels: (1) The inverse beta decay ν¯¯¯e+p→n+e+; (2) The elastic neutrino-proton scattering ν+p→ν+p; (3) The elastic neutrino-electron scattering ν+e−→ν+e−; (4) The charged-current νe interaction νe+12C→e−+12N; (5) The charged-current ν¯¯¯e interaction ν¯¯¯e+12C→e++12B; (6) The neutral-current interaction ν+12C→ν+12C∗. The less abundant 13C atoms in the liquid scintillator are also considered as a target, and both the charged-current interaction νe+13C→e−+13N and the neutral-current interaction ν+13C→ν+13C∗ are taken into account. In this work, we show for the first time that a global analysis of all these channels at a single {liquid-}scintillator detector, such as Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), is very important to test the average-energy hierarchy of SN neutrinos and how the total energy is partitioned among neutrino flavors. In addition, the dominant channels for reconstructing neutrino spectra and the impact of other channels are discussed in great detail.

  • Radiative Corrections to the Sum Rule of Lepton Flavor Mixing

    分类: 物理学 >> 核物理学 提交时间: 2016-09-01

    摘要:The simple correlation among three lepton flavor mixing angles (θ12,θ13,θ23) and the leptonic Dirac CP-violating phase δ is conventionally called a sum rule of lepton flavor mixing, which may be derived from a class of neutrino mass models with flavor symmetries. In this paper, we consider the sum rule θ12≈θν12+θ13cosδ, where θν12 stems from a constant mixing pattern in the neutrino sector and takes the value of θν12=45∘ for the bi-maximal mixing (BM), θν12=35.3∘ for the tri-bimaximal mixing (TBM) or θν12=tan−1[2/(5√+1)]≈31.7∘ for the golden-ratio mixing (GR), and investigate the renormalization-group (RG) running effects on lepton flavor mixing parameters when this sum rule is assumed at a superhigh-energy scale. Quantitatively, we implement the Bayesian approach to explore the posterior distribution of δ at the low-energy scale, which becomes quite broad when the RG running effects are significant, as in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with a sizeable value of tanβ. Moreover, we also discuss the compatibility of the above three mixing scenarios with current neutrino oscillation data, and observe that radiative corrections can increase such a compatibility for the BM scenario, resulting in a weaker preference for the TBM and GR ones.