摘要：With the development of network and the World Wide Web (WWW), the Internet has been growing and changing dramatically. More and more on-line database systems and different kinds of services are available for astronomy research. How to help users find their way through the jungle of information services becomes an important challenge. Although astronomers have been aware of the importance of interoperability and introduced the concept of Virtual Observatory as a uniform environment for future astronomical on-line resources and services, transparent access to heterogeneous on-line information is still difficult.
摘要：We re-estimate the surface magnetic fields of neutron stars (NSs) in Be X-ray binaries (BeXBs) with different models of torque, improved beyond Klus et al. (2014). In particular, a new torque model (Dai \& Li 2006) is applied to three models of magnetosphere radius. Unlike the previous models, the new torque model does not lead to divergent results for any fastness parameter. The inferred surface magnetic fields of these NSs for the two compressed magnetosphere models are much higher than that for the uncompressed magnetosphere model. The new torque model using the compressed-magnetosphere radius (Shi, Zhang \& Li 2014) leads to unique solutions near spin equilibrium in all cases, unlike other models that usually give two branches of solutions. Although our conclusions are still affected by the simplistic assumptions about the magnetosphere radius calculations, we show several groups of possible surface magnetic field values with our new models when the interaction between the magnetosphere and the infalling accretion plasma is considered. The estimated surface magnetic fields for NSs BeXBs in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud and the Milk Way are between the quantum critical field and the maximum "virial" value by the spin equilibrium condition.
摘要：The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) team subtracted template-based foreground models to produce foreground-reduced maps, and masked point sources and uncertain sky regions directly; however, whether foreground residuals exist in the WMAP foreground-reduced maps is still an open question. Here, we use Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis with AS-γ TeV cosmic ray (CR) data to probe possible foreground residuals in the WMAP nine-year data. The correlation results between the CR and foreground-contained maps (WMAP foreground-unreduced maps, WMAP template-based and MEM foreground models) suggest that: (1) CRs can trace foregrounds in the WMAP data; (2) at least some TeV CRs originate from the Milky Way; (3) foregrounds may be related to the existence of CR anisotropy (loss-cone and tail-in structures); (4) there exist differences among different types of foregrounds in the declination range of <15∘. Then, we generate 10,000 mock CMB sky maps to describe the cosmic variance, which is used to measure the effect of the fluctuations of all possible CMB maps to the correlations between CR and CMB maps. Finally, we do correlation analysis between the CR and WMAP foreground-reduced maps, and find that: (1) there are significant anticorrelations; and (2) the WMAP foreground-reduced maps are credible. However, the significant anticorrelations may be accidental, and the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) Planck SMICA map cannot reject the hypothesis of accidental correlations. We therefore can only conclude that the foreground residuals exist with ∼ 95\% probability.
摘要：We model the evolution of the spin frequency's second derivative ν¨ and the braking index n of radio pulsars with simulations within the phenomenological model of their surface magnetic field evolution, which contains a long-term power-law decay modulated by short-term oscillations. For the pulsar PSR B0329+54, a model with three oscillation components can reproduce its ν¨ variation. We show that the "averaged" n is different from the instantaneous n, and its oscillation magnitude decreases abruptly as the time span increases, due to the "averaging" effect. The simulated timing residuals agree with the main features of the reported data. Our model predicts that the averaged ν¨ of PSR B0329+54 will start to decrease rapidly with newer data beyond those used in Hobbs et al.. We further perform Monte Carlo simulations for the distribution of the reported data in |ν¨| and |n| versus characteristic age τc diagrams. It is found that the magnetic field oscillation model with decay index α=0 can reproduce the distributions quite well. Compared with magnetic field decay due to the ambipolar diffusion (α=0.5) and the Hall cascade (α=1.0), the model with no long term decay (α=0) is clearly preferred for old pulsars by the p-values of the two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
摘要：Aiming at the observation of cosmic-ray chemical composition at the "knee" energy region, we have been developinga new type air-shower core detector (YAC, Yangbajing Air shower Core detector array) to be set up at Yangbajing (90.522∘ E, 30.102∘ N, 4300 m above sea level, atmospheric depth: 606 g/m2) in Tibet, China. YAC works together with the Tibet air-shower array (Tibet-III) and an underground water cherenkov muon detector array (MD) as a hybrid experiment. Each YAC detector unit consists of lead plates of 3.5 cm thick and a scintillation counter which detects the burst size induced by high energy particles in the air-shower cores. The burst size can be measured from 1 MIP (Minimum Ionization Particle) to 106 MIPs. The first phase of this experiment, named "YAC-I", consists of 16 YAC detectors each having the size 40 cm × 50 cm and distributing in a grid with an effective area of 10 m2. YAC-I is used to check hadronic interaction models. The second phase of the experiment, called "YAC-II", consists of 124 YAC detectors with coverage about 500 m2. The inner 100 detectors of 80 cm × 50 cm each are deployed in a 10 × 10 matrix from with a 1.9 m separation and the outer 24 detectors of 100 cm × 50 cm each are distributed around them to reject non-core events whose shower cores are far from the YAC-II array. YAC-II is used to study the primary cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of proton, helium and iron nuclei between 5×1013 eV and 1016 eV covering the "knee" and also being connected with direct observations at energies around 100 TeV. We present the design and performance of YAC-II in this paper.
摘要：A new hybrid experiment has been constructed to measure the chemical composition of cosmic rays around the "knee" in the wide energy range by the Tibet ASγ collaboration at Tibet, China, since 2014. They consist of a high-energy air-shower-core array (YAC-II), a high-density air-shower array (Tibet-III) and a large underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector array (MD). In order to obtain the primary proton, helium and iron spectra and their "knee" positions in the energy range lower than 1016 eV, each of PMTs equipped to the MD cell is required to measure the number of photons capable of covering a wide dynamic range of 100 - 106 photoelectrons (PEs) according to Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we firstly compare the characteristic features between R5912-PMT made by Japan Hamamatsu and CR365-PMT made by Beijing Hamamatsu. This is the first comparison between R5912-PMT and CR365-PMT. If there exists no serious difference, we will then add two 8-inch-in-diameter PMTs to meet our requirements in each MD cell, which are responsible for the range of 100 - 10000 PEs and 2000 - 1000000 PEs, respectively. That is, MD cell is expected to be able to measure the number of muons over 6 orders of magnitude.
摘要：A new air-shower core-detector array (YAC : Yangbajing Air-shower Core-detector array) has been developed to measure the primary cosmic-ray composition at the "knee" energies in Tibet, China, focusing mainly on the light components. The prototype experiment (YAC-I) consisting of 16 detectors has been constructed and operated at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since May 2009. YAC-I is installed in the Tibet-III AS array and operates together. In this paper, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation to check the sensitivity of YAC-I+Tibet-III array to the cosmic-ray light component of cosmic rays around the knee energies, taking account of the observation conditions of actual YAC-I+Tibet-III array. The selection of light component from others was made by use of an artificial neural network (ANN). The simulation shows that the light-component spectrum estimated by our methods can well reproduce the input ones within 10\% error, and there will be about 30\% systematic errors mostly induced by the primary and interaction models used. It is found that the full-scale YAC and the Tibet-III array is powerful to study the cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei around the knee energies.
摘要：The South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS) is a deep u-band imaging survey in the south Galactic capusing the 2.3 m Bok telescope. The survey observations were completed at the end of 2013, covering an area ofabout 5000 square degrees. We release the data in the region with an area of about 4000 deg2 that is mostly coveredby the Sloan digital sky survey. The data products contain calibrated single-epoch images, stacked images,photometric catalogs, and a catalog of star proper motions derived by Peng et al. The median seeing and magnitudelimit (5σ) are about 2 0 and 23.2 mag, respectively. There are about 8 million objects having measurements ofabsolute proper motions. All the data and related documentations can be accessed through the SCUSS data releasewebsite http://batc.bao.ac.cn/Uband/data.html.Key words: catalogs – surveys – techniques: image processing – techni
摘要：Although the roles of data centers and computing centers are becoming more and more important, and on-line research is becoming the mainstream for astronomy, individual research based on locally hosted data is still very common. With the increase of personal storage capacity, it is easy to find hundreds to thousands of FITS files in the personal computer of an astrophysicist. Because Flexible Image Transport System (FITS) is a professional data format initiated by astronomers and used mainly in the small community, data management toolkits for FITS files are very few. Astronomers need a powerful tool to help them manage their local astronomical data. Although Virtual Observatory (VO) is a network oriented astronomical research environment, its applications and related technologies provide useful solutions to enhance the management and utilization of astronomical data hosted in an astronomer’s personal computer. FITSManager is such a tool to provide astronomers an efficient management and utilization of their local data, bringing VO to astronomers in a seamless and transparent way. FITSManager provides fruitful functions for FITS file management, like thumbnail, preview, type dependent icons, header keyword indexing and search, collaborated working with other tools and on-line services, and so on. The development of the FITSManager is an effort to fill the gap between management and analysis of astronomical data.
摘要：The South Galactic Cap u-band Sky Survey (SCUSS) is a deep u-band imaging survey in the Southern GalacticCap, using the 90Prime wide-field imager on the 2.3 Bok telescope at Kitt Peak. The survey observations started in2010 and ended in 2013. The final survey area is about 5000 deg2 with a median 5σ point source limitingmagnitude of ?23.2. This paper describes the survey data reduction process, which includes basic imagingprocessing, astrometric and photometric calibrations, image stacking, and photometric measurements. Surveyphotometry is performed on objects detected both on SCUSS u-band images and in the SDSS database. Automatic,aperture, point-spread function (PSF), and model magnitudes are measured on stacked images. Co-added aperture,PSF, and model magnitudes are derived from measurements on single-epoch images. We also present comparisonsof the SCUSS photometric ca
摘要：We present seeing measurements of the Guoshoujing Telescope (formerly named the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope- LAMOST) site at Xinglong station during the period from 2007 March 12 to April 25. The measurements were carried out with the Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM), and a total of 9259 data sets was obtained. The median seeing was measured to be 1.1″, with 25% being better than 0.8″and 75% better than 1.5″. The experiment shows that the DIMM exposure time has significant effects on the results of seeing measurements. An SBIG Polaris seeing monitor, which had been planned to be installed on the LAMOST site for long-term monitoring, was also employed during the DIMM observations. The results show that the SBIG seeing monitor is easily affected by gusty wind, resulting in larger seeing values. Considering the previous seeing measurements at Xinglong station over the last 15 yr, we conclude that an acceptable seeing condition at Xinglong station is around 1″–2″.
摘要：The Large sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) general survey is a spectroscopic survey that will eventually cover approximately half of the celestial sphere and collect 10 million spectra of stars, galaxies and QSOs. Objects in both the pilot survey and the first year regular survey are included in the LAMOST DR1. The pilot survey started in October 2011 and ended in June 2012, and the data have been released to the public as the LAMOST Pilot Data Release in August 2012. The regular survey started in September 2012, and completed its first year of operation in June 2013. The LAMOST DR1 includes a total of 1202 plates containing 2 955 336 spectra, of which 1 790 879 spectra have observed signalto-noise ratio (SNR) ≥ 10. All data with SNR ≥ 2 are formally released as LAMOST DR1 under the LAMOST data policy. This data release contains a total of 2 204 696 spectra, of which 1 944 329 are stellar spectra, 12 082 are galaxy spectra and 5017 are quasars. The DR1 not only includes spectra, but also three stellar catalogs with measured parameters: late A,FGK-type stars with high quality spectra (1 061 918 entries), A-type stars (100 073 entries), and M-type stars (121 522 entries). This paper introduces the survey design, the observational and instrumental limitations, data reduction and analysis, and some caveats. A description of the FITS structure of spectral files and parameter catalogs is also provided.