摘要： Abstract: To face the challenges of keeping healthy in increasing population sizes of both ageing and developing people in China, a fundamental request from the public health is the development of lifespan normative trajectories of brain and behavior. This paper introduces the Chinese Color Nest Project (CCNP 2013–2022), a large-scale tenyear program of modeling brain and behavioral trajectories for human lifespan (6–85 years old). We plan to gradually collect the behavioral and brain imaging data at ages across the lifespan on nationwide and depict the normal trajectory of Chinese brain development across the lifespan, based on the accelerated longitudinal design in the coming next 10 years starting at 2013. Various psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated highly relevant to abnormal events during the neurodevelopment regarding their onset ages of first episodes. Therefore, delineation of normative growth curves of brain and cognition in typically developing children is extremely useful for monitoring, early detecting and intervention of various neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we detailed the developing part of CCNP, devCCNP. It tracked 192 healthy children and adolescents (6–18 years old) in Beibei district of Chongqing for the first 5 years of the full CCNP cohort (2013–2017). To demonstrate the feasibility of implementing the longterm follow-up of CCNP, we here comprehensively document devCCNP in terms of its experimental design, sample strategies, data acquisition and storage as well as some preliminary results and data sharing roadmap for future. Specifically, we first describe the accelerated longitudinal sampling design as well as its exact ratio of sample dropping off during the data collection. Second, we present several initial findings such as canonical growth curves of cortical surface areas of a set of well-established large-scale functional networks of the human brain. Finally, together with records generated by many psychological and behavioral tests, we will provide an individual growing-up report for each family participating the program, initiating the potential guidance on the individual academic and social development. The resources introduced in the current work can provide first-hand data for a series of coming Chinese brain development studies, such as Chinese Standard MRI Brain Templates, Normative Growth Curves of Chinese Brain and Cognition as well as Mapping of Language Areas in Chinese Developing Brain. These would not only offer normative references of the atypical brain and cognition development for Chinese population but also serve as a strong force on accelerating the pace of integrating Chinese brain development into the national brain program or Chinese Brain Project.
摘要：A new hybrid experiment has been constructed to measure the chemical composition of cosmic rays around the "knee" in the wide energy range by the Tibet ASγ collaboration at Tibet, China, since 2014. They consist of a high-energy air-shower-core array (YAC-II), a high-density air-shower array (Tibet-III) and a large underground water-Cherenkov muon-detector array (MD). In order to obtain the primary proton, helium and iron spectra and their "knee" positions in the energy range lower than 1016 eV, each of PMTs equipped to the MD cell is required to measure the number of photons capable of covering a wide dynamic range of 100 - 106 photoelectrons (PEs) according to Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper, we firstly compare the characteristic features between R5912-PMT made by Japan Hamamatsu and CR365-PMT made by Beijing Hamamatsu. This is the first comparison between R5912-PMT and CR365-PMT. If there exists no serious difference, we will then add two 8-inch-in-diameter PMTs to meet our requirements in each MD cell, which are responsible for the range of 100 - 10000 PEs and 2000 - 1000000 PEs, respectively. That is, MD cell is expected to be able to measure the number of muons over 6 orders of magnitude.
摘要：A new air-shower core-detector array (YAC : Yangbajing Air-shower Core-detector array) has been developed to measure the primary cosmic-ray composition at the "knee" energies in Tibet, China, focusing mainly on the light components. The prototype experiment (YAC-I) consisting of 16 detectors has been constructed and operated at Yangbajing (4300 m a.s.l.) in Tibet since May 2009. YAC-I is installed in the Tibet-III AS array and operates together. In this paper, we performed a Monte Carlo simulation to check the sensitivity of YAC-I+Tibet-III array to the cosmic-ray light component of cosmic rays around the knee energies, taking account of the observation conditions of actual YAC-I+Tibet-III array. The selection of light component from others was made by use of an artificial neural network (ANN). The simulation shows that the light-component spectrum estimated by our methods can well reproduce the input ones within 10\% error, and there will be about 30\% systematic errors mostly induced by the primary and interaction models used. It is found that the full-scale YAC and the Tibet-III array is powerful to study the cosmic-ray composition, in particular, to obtain the energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei around the knee energies.