摘要：喀喇昆仑山分布有众多的跃动型冰川，跃动机理存在异质性。使用Landsat、Sentinel-1A、TSX/TDX等多源遥感数据，获取了中喀喇昆仑布拉尔杜冰川在跃动期间冰川表面高程和表面流速变化。结果表明：布拉尔杜冰川从2006年开始，流速逐渐增加；到2013年之后进入快速运动期，最高流速可达4.9 m·d-1；2015年8月底，冰川表面速度急剧下降，随后保持较低的流速至2016年1月，而后流速再次增加，到同年2月初便进入平静期。2000—2014年冰川主干中上游有明显隆起，而冰川接收区明显减薄，最大减薄达89 m；2014—2018年冰川主干中上游以及各支流均有不同程度的减薄，冰川主干的接收区高程显著增加，最大增厚120 m。根据冰川表面高程变化以及流速变化的特征，认为布拉尔杜冰川的支流引发了此次跃动，且本次跃动受水文机制的影响较大；结合现有的数据和文献，推断布拉尔杜冰川的跃动间隔约为40 a；为喀喇昆仑冰川跃动研究提供更多的实例，也可为此区域冰川灾害预警研究提供参考。
Dew is an essential water resource for the survival and reproduction of organisms in arid and semi-arid regions. Yet estimating the dew amount and quantifying its long-term variation are challenging. In this study, we elucidate the dew amount and its long-term variation in the Kunes River Valley, Northwest China, based on the measured daily dew amount and reconstructed values (using meteorological data from 1980 to 2021), respectively. Four key results were found: (1) the daily mean dew amount was 0.05 mm during the observation period (4 July–12 August and 13 September–7 October of 2021). In 35 d of the observation period (i.e., 73% of the observation period), the daily dew amount exceeded the threshold (>0.03 mm/d) for microorganisms; (2) air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed had significant impacts on the daily dew amount based on the relationships between the measured dew amount and meteorological variables; (3) for estimating the daily dew amount, random forest (RF) model outperformed multiple linear regression (MLR) model given its larger R2 and lower MAE and RMSE; and (4) the dew amount during June–October and in each month did not vary significantly from 1980 to the beginning of the 21st century. It then significantly decreased for about a decade, after it increased slightly from 2013 to 2021. For the whole meteorological period of 1980–2021, the dew amount decreased significantly during June–October and in July and September, and there was no significant variation in June, August, and October. Variation in the dew amount in the Kunes River Valley was mainly driven by relative humidity. This study illustrates that RF model can be used to reconstruct long-term variation in the dew amount, which provides valuable information for us to better understand the dew amount and its relationship with climate change.
Abstract: Coal mining has changed the hydrogeological conditions of river basins, and studying how the relationship among different types of water body has changed under the influence of coal mining is of great significance for understanding the regional hydrological cycle. We analyzed the temporal and spatial distribution of hydrochemical properties and environmental isotopes in the Hailiutu River Basin (HRB), China with a mixed model. The results showed that: (1) human activity (e.g., coal mining and agricultural production) causes considerable changes in the hydrochemical properties of surface water in and around the mining areas, and leads to significant increases in the concentrations of Na+ and SO2– 4; (2) precipitation is the main source of water vapour in the HRB. The transformation between surface water and groundwater in the natural watershed is mainly affected by precipitation; and (3) in the mining areas, the average contribution rates of precipitation to the recharge of surface water and groundwater increased by 2.6%–7.9% and 2.7%–9.9%, respectively. Groundwater in the Salawusu Formation constitutes up to 61.3%–72.4% of mine water. Overall, this study is beneficial for quantifying the effects of coal mining on local hydrological cycles. The research results can provide a reference for local water resources management and ecological environment improvement.
生态输水与农业节水是实现内陆干旱流域可持续发展的重要手段，连续水文观测资料的缺乏制约了生态输水与农业节水效益评价。为此，以中国甘肃敦煌疏勒河流域下游为例，基于遥感水文站与谷歌地球引擎进行2016—2020年月尺度的生态输水遥感监测，在此基础上结合蒸散发和土地覆盖类型等多源遥感数据评价生态输水与农业节水效益，分析两者之间在水资源方面的平衡关系。结果表明：（1）遥感水文站与谷歌地球引擎（Google Earth Engine, GEE）能够为生态输水遥感监测与农业节水效益评价提供可靠的数据支撑。（2）2017—2020年生态输水能够为下游湿地与河道平均每年提供2.50×108 m3生态用水，其中30.06%的水量到达下游湿地，18.47%的水量被下游河道周边的植被所利用，且使下游河道周边植被面积增加112.25 km2。（3）农业节水在保持耕地面积维持上升趋势的前提下，2017—2020年平均每年降低耕地的蒸散发量0.395×108 m3；耕地蒸散发减少量平均占生态输水量的14.22%，农业节水有效缓解了内陆干旱流域农业用水挤占生态用水的问题。本文将为内陆干旱缺测站流域的生态输水遥感监测与农业节水效益评价提供新的思路，以期为未来的生态输水与农业节水工程的实施提供理论支撑。
及时获取凌汛期河冰和水体的空间分布特征，对于预测冰凌灾害、提高防凌信息化管理水平有重要意义。遥感技术是当前获取河冰和水体空间分布的最主要手段之一。但是，黄河水体有大量悬浮泥沙，这给基于遥感技术的高精度冰-水分类带来了挑战。以黄河内蒙古段为例，基于Landsat 8 OLI遥感影像数据，在利用归一化积雪指数（NDSI）及河道矢量数据排除无关地物的基础上，对比了近红外波段反射率值、归一化差异水体指数（NDWI）、归一化积雪指数（NDSI）、改进的归一化积雪指数（MNDSI）以及归一化差异未封冻水体指数（NDUWI）在黄河内蒙古段典型河道河冰、水体分类中的表现，计算各指标总体分类精度及Kappa系数并进行阈值稳定性分析。结果表明：在利用NDSI和高清历史影像排除河道外无关地物后，NDUWI在各子段影像中的总体分类精度和Kappa系数均达到90.00%及0.90以上，其河冰、水体最优区分阈值大体分布于阈值中值附近。研究结果可为凌汛期黄河冰凌监测方法的选取以及冰上爆破位置的拟定提供依据。
基于2001—2018年MOD10A2积雪产品和MOD11A2陆地表面温度数据，采用精细分区统计和相关性分析方法，研究了中国天山不同海拔高度上积雪垂直分布特征及其与地表温度（Landsurface temperature，LST）的响应关系。结果表明：中国天山积雪覆盖率（Snow cover percentage，SCP）随海拔的变化呈现春、夏、秋、冬4种不同的季节变化模式。SCP在海拔4200 m以下呈秋冬季增加、春夏季减少态势，在海拔4200 m以上呈秋冬季减少、春夏季增加态势。除冬季外，春、夏、秋3个季节的SCP与LST均具有显著强负相关性。
Abstract: With realizing the importance of ecosystem services to society, the efforts to evaluate the ecosystem services have increased. As the largest tributary of the Yellow River, the Weihe River has been endowed with many ecological service functions. Among which, water yield can be a measure of local availability of water and an index for evaluating the conservation function of the region. This study aimed to explore the temporal and spatial variation of water yield and its influencing factors in the Weihe River Basin (WRB), and provide basis for formulating reasonable water resources utilization schemes. Based on the InVEST (integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs) model, this study simulated the water yield in the WRB from 1985 to 2019, and discussed the impacts of climatic factors and land use change on water yield by spatial autocorrelation analysis and scenario analysis methods. The results showed that there was a slight increasing trend in water yield in the WRB over the study period with the increasing rate of 4.84 mm/10a and an average depth of 83.14 mm. The main water-producing areas were concentrated along the mainstream of the Weihe River and in the southern basin. Changes in water yield were comprehensively affected by climate and underlying surface factors. Precipitation was the main factor affecting water yield, which was consistent with water yield in time. And there existed significant spatial agglomeration between water yield and precipitation. Land use had little impact on the amount of water yield, but had an impact on its spatial distribution. Water yield was higher in areas with wide distribution of construction land and grassland. Water yield of different land use types were different. Unused land showed the largest water yield capacity, whereas grassland and farmland contributed most to the total water yield. The increasing water yield in the basin indicates an enhanced water supply service function of the ecosystem. These results are of great significance to the water resources management of the WRB.
Abstract: Comprehensive assessments of ecosystem services in environments under the influences of human activities and climate change are critical for sustainable regional ecosystem management. Therefore, integrated interdisciplinary modelling has become a major focus of ecosystem service assessment. In this study, we established a model that integrates land use/cover change (LUCC), climate change, and water retention services to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations of water retention services in the Loess Plateau of China in the historical period (2000–2015) and in the future (2020–2050). An improved Markov-Cellular Automata (Markov-CA) model was used to simulate land use/land cover patterns, and ArcGIS 10.2 software was used to simulate and assess water retention services from 2000 to 2050 under six combined scenarios, including three land use/land cover scenarios (historical scenario (HS), ecological protection scenario (EPS), and urban expansion scenario (UES)) and two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, where RCP is the representative concentration pathway). LUCCs in the historical period (2000–2015) and in the future (2020–2050) are dominated by transformations among agricultural land, urban land and grassland. Urban land under UES increased significantly by 0.63×103 km2/a, which was higher than the increase of urban land under HS and EPS. In the Loess Plateau, water yield decreased by 17.20×106 mm and water retention increased by 0.09×106 mm in the historical period (2000–2015), especially in the Interior drainage zone and its surrounding areas. In the future (2020–2050), the pixel means of water yield is higher under RCP4.5 scenario (96.63 mm) than under RCP8.5 scenario (95.46 mm), and the pixel means of water retention is higher under RCP4.5 scenario (1.95 mm) than under RCP8.5 scenario (1.38 mm). RCP4.5-EPS shows the highest total water retention capacity on the plateau scale among the six combined scenarios, with the value of 1.27×106 mm. Ecological restoration projects in the Loess Plateau have enhanced soil and water retention. However, more attention needs to be paid not only to the simultaneous increase in water retention services and evapotranspiration but also to the type and layout of restored vegetation. Furthermore, urbanization needs to be controlled to prevent uncontrollable LUCCs and climate change. Our findings provide reference data for the regional water and land resources management and the sustainable development of socio-ecological systems in the Loess Plateau under LUCC and climate change scenarios.
生态输水调度是生态保护和恢复最有效的措施之一，实施生态输水对恢复干旱半干旱地区天然生态系统、维护绿洲生态系统健康具有重要意义。结合阿克苏河流域生态输水现状，在识别自然植被重点区和估算生态需水的基础上，建立了基于生态恢复目标的流域生态输水调度优化框架。首先采用高分系列影像识别自然植被信息，建立阿克苏河流域2015—2020年自然植被数据集，逐像元统计自然植被出现频次确定了艾希曼湖湿地区、第一师边缘胡杨林区、五团边缘胡杨林区3个自然植被重点区，面积达1257.69 km2；借助面积定额法和水量平衡法估算3个自然植被重点区的生态输水量分别为1.53×108 m3、2.73×108 m3、1.14×108 m3；确定了流域生态输水的最佳时间为5—9月，单次或2次进行生态输水，建议单次生态输水量大于0.2×108 m3且输水天数大于10 d；渠系网络分析显示3个自然植被重点区设置的8个输水口可以作为今后生态输水路径的参考。研究结果对阿克苏河流域生态输水调度、生态用水精细管理等具有重要的指导价值。
Abstract: Precipitation is one of the most important indicators of climate data, but there are many errors in precipitation measurements due to the influence of climatic conditions, especially those of solid precipitation in alpine mountains and at high latitude areas. The measured amount of precipitation in those areas is frequently less than the actual amount of precipitation. To understand the impact of climatic conditions on precipitation measurements in the mountainous areas of Northwest China and the applicability of different gauges in alpine mountains, we established a cryospheric hydrometeorology observation (CHOICE) system in 2008 in the Qilian Mountains, which consists of six automated observation stations located between 2960 and 4800 m a.s.l. Total Rain weighing Sensor (TRwS) gauges tested in the World Meteorological Organization-Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE) were used at observation stations with the CHOICE system. To study the influence of climatic conditions on different types of precipitation measured by the TRwS gauges, we conducted an intercomparison experiment of precipitation at Hulu-1 station that was one of the stations in the CHOICE system. Moreover, we tested the application of transfer functions recommended by the WMO-SPICE at this station using the measurement data from a TRwS gauge from August 2016 to December 2020 and computed new coefficients for the same transfer functions that were more appropriate for the dataset from Hulu-1 station. The new coefficients were used to correct the precipitation measurements of other stations in the CHOICE system. Results showed that the new parameters fitted to the local dataset had better correction results than the original parameters. The environmental conditions of Hulu-1 station were very different from those of observation stations that provided datasets to create the transfer functions. Thus, root-mean-square error (RMSE) of solid and mixed precipitation corrected by the original parameters increased significantly by the averages of 0.135 (353%) and 0.072 mm (111%), respectively. RMSE values of liquid, solid and mixed precipitation measurements corrected by the new parameters decreased by 6%, 20% and 13%, respectively. In addition, the new parameters were suitable for correcting precipitation at other five stations in the CHOICE system. The relative precipitation (RP) increment of different types of precipitation increased with rising altitude. The average RP increment value of snowfall at six stations was the highest, reaching 7%, while that of rainfall was the lowest, covering 3%. Our results confirmed that the new parameters could be used to correct precipitation measurements of the CHOICE system.
Abstract: Identifying water vapor sources in the natural vegetation of the Tianshan Mountains is of significant importance for obtaining greater knowledge about the water cycle, forecasting water resource changes, and dealing with the adverse effects of climate change. In this study, we identified water vapor sources of precipitation and evaluated their effects on precipitation stable isotopes in the north slope of the Tianshan Mountains, China. By utilizing the temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation stable isotopes in the forest and grassland regions, Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, and isotope mass balance model, we obtained the following results. (1) The Eurasia, Black Sea, and Caspian Sea are the major sources of water vapor. (2) The contribution of surface evaporation to precipitation in forests is lower than that in the grasslands (except in spring), while the contribution of plant transpiration to precipitation in forests (5.35%) is higher than that in grasslands (3.79%) in summer. (3) The underlying surface and temperature are the main factors that affect the contribution of recycled water vapor to precipitation; meanwhile, the effects of water vapor sources of precipitation on precipitation stable isotopes are counteracted by other environmental factors. Overall, this work will prove beneficial in quantifying the effect of climate change on local water cycles.
Abstract: Qinghai Lake is the largest saline lake in China. The change in the lake volume is an indicator of the variation in water resources and their response to climate change on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in China. The present study quantitatively evaluated the effects of climate change and land use/cover change (LUCC) on the lake volume of the Qinghai Lake in China from 1958 to 2018, which is crucial for water resources management in the Qinghai Lake Basin. To explore the effects of climate change and LUCC on the Qinghai Lake volume, we analyzed the lake level observation data and multi-period land use/land cover (LULC) data by using an improved lake volume estimation method and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model. Our results showed that the lake level decreased at the rate of 0.08 m/a from 1958 to 2004 and increased at the rate of 0.16 m/a from 2004 to 2018. The lake volume decreased by 105.40×108 m3 from 1958 to 2004, with the rate of 2.24×108 m3/a, whereas it increased by 74.02×108 m3 from 2004 to 2018, with the rate of 4.66×108 m3/a. Further, the climate of the Qinghai Lake Basin changed from warm-dry to warm-humid. From 1958 to 2018, the increase in precipitation and the decrease in evaporation controlled the change of the lake volume, which were the main climatic factors affecting the lake volume change. From 1977 to 2018, the measured water yield showed an "increase-decrease-increase" fluctuation in the Qinghai Lake Basin. The effects of climate change and LUCC on the measured water yield were obviously different. From 1977 to 2018, the contribution rate of LUCC was –0.76% and that of climate change was 100.76%; the corresponding rates were 8.57% and 91.43% from 1977 to 2004, respectively, and –4.25% and 104.25% from 2004 to 2018, respectively. Quantitative analysis of the effects and contribution rates of climate change and LUCC on the Qinghai Lake volume revealed the scientific significance of climate change and LUCC, as well as their individual and combined effects in the Qinghai Lake Basin and on the QTP. This study can contribute to the water resources management and regional sustainable development of the Qinghai Lake Basin.
It is common knowledge that Yarmouk River Basin (YRB) is shared between Jordan and Syria. Management of YRB trans-boundary water resources is attracting increasing interest because it is a strategic water resource for the riparian countries. Actually, lack of sharing information regarding hydrological flows and basin's water management between partners' countries makes it difficult to distinguish between natural and man-made factors affecting the water body. Therefore, this study seeks to address and assess the main on-site changes that exert on YRB. Geospatial technique and arithmetic equations were combined to carry out an assessment of the changes on water resources in YRB. Data, information and field measurements of the basin were aggregated, compiled and presented to determine the extent of changes during the period 1980–2020. Remarkable findings showed that precipitation amount in the basin significantly declined during the period 1980–2020 in particularly after the year 1992. Pumping rate of groundwater was 550×103 m3/a, exceeding the basin's safe yield. Draw down of static groundwater level over time approached the value of –3.2 m/a due to the over abstraction in the aquifer body. Additionally, the evaporation rate reached more than 99% in some regions in the basin. Moreover, the number of private wells has increased from 98 wells in 1980 to 126 wells in 2020, showing the excessive extraction of groundwater. These findings indicate that the study area is subjected to a considerable groundwater depletion in the near future due to extensive abstraction, continuous drilling of illegal wells and decreased annual precipitation under the shadow of the rapid population growth and continuous influx of refugees. Therefore, decision makers-informed scenarios are suggested in the development of water resource portfolios, which involves the combination of management and infrastructural actions that enhance the water productivity of the basin. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the on-site changes on water resources in YRB in collaboration with riparian countries and to establish monitoring system for continuous and accurate measurements of the basin.
As important freshwater resources in alpine basins, glaciers and snow cover tend to decline due to climate warming, thus affecting the amount of water available downstream and even regional economic development. However, impact assessments of the economic losses caused by reductions in freshwater supply are quite limited. This study aims to project changes in glacier meltwater and snowmelt of the Urumqi River in the Tianshan Mountains under future climate change scenarios (RCP2.6 (RCP, Representative Concentration Pathway), RCP4.5, and RCP8.5) by applying a hydrological model and estimate the economic losses from future meltwater reduction for industrial, agricultural, service, and domestic water uses combined with the present value method for the 2030s, 2050s, 2070s, and 2090s. The results indicate that total annual glacier meltwater and snowmelt will decrease by 65.6% and 74.5% under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios by the 2090s relative to the baseline period (1980–2010), respectively. Compared to the RCP2.6 scenario, the projected economic loss values of total water use from reduced glacier meltwater and snowmelt under the RCP8.5 scenario will increase by 435.10×106 and 537.20×106 CNY in the 2050s and 2090s, respectively, and the cumulative economic loss value for 2099 is approximately 2124.00×106 CNY. We also find that the industrial and agricultural sectors would likely face the largest and smallest economic losses, respectively. The economic loss value of snowmelt in different sectorial sectors is greater than that of glacier meltwater. These findings highlight the need for climate mitigation actions, industrial transformation, and rational water allocation to be considered in decision-making in the Tianshan Mountains in the future.
Water shortage is one bottleneck that limits economic and social developments in arid and semi-arid areas. As the impacts of climate change and human disturbance intensify across time, uncertainties in both water resource supplies and demands increase in arid and semi-arid areas. Taking a typical arid region in China, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, as an example, water yield depth (WYD) and water utilization depth (WUD) from 2002 to 2018 were simulated using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model and socioeconomic data. The supply-demand relationships of water resources were analyzed using the ecosystem service indices including water supply-demand difference (WSDD) and water supply rate (WSR). The internal factors in changes of WYD and WUD were explored using the controlled variable method. The results show that the supply- demand relationships of water resources in Xinjiang were in a slight deficit, but the deficit was alleviated due to increased precipitation and decreased WUD of irrigation. WYD generally experienced an increasing trend, and significant increase mainly occurred in the oasis areas surrounding both the Junggar Basin and Tarim Basin. WUD had a downward trend with a decline of 20.70%, especially in oasis areas. Water resources in most areas of Xinjiang were fully utilized and the utilization efficiency of water resources increased. The water yield module in the InVEST model was calibrated and validated using gauging station data in Xinjiang, and the result shows that the use of satellite-based water storage data helped to decrease the bias error of the InVEST model by 0.69×108 m3. This study analyzed water resource supplies and demands from a perspective of ecosystem services, which expanded the scope of the application of ecosystem services and increased the research perspective of water resource evaluation. The results could provide guidance for water resource management such as spatial allocation and structural optimization of water resources in arid and semi-arid areas.
基于MODIS影像、中国湖泊数据集及气象数据，综合分析了2000—2019年赛里木湖湖冰物候特征变化及影响因素。结果表明：（1）赛里木湖湖冰开始冻结和开始消融日期平均出现在11月2日和4月26日，湖冰完全封冻和完全消融日期平均出现在1月18日和5月17日，湖冰完全封冻期和湖冰冰期平均为99 d和196 d。（2）近20 a赛里木湖湖冰开始消融和完全消融日期均呈提前趋势，而完全冻结日期也呈提前趋势，与对应月平均气温呈正相关；湖冰完全封冻期持续时间延长，而湖冰冰期呈缩短趋势。（3）赛里木湖冻结和消融空间模式相同，即湖岸是湖冰形成最早也是消融最早的区域。（4）赛里木湖湖冰物候变化是自身条件（湖泊形态因子、湖岸线复杂度等）及气候变化（气温、累积负积温等）共同作用的结果。