您选择的条件: 生物进化论(2)
  • 利用全基因组数据解码新型肺炎冠状病毒的进化和传播

    分类: 生物学 >> 病毒学 分类: 生物学 >> 生物进化论 分类: 生物学 >> 遗传学 提交时间: 2020-02-21

    摘要:Background. The outbreak of COVID-19 started in mid-December 2019 in Wuhan, Central China. Up to February 18, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 70,000 people in China, and another 25 countries across five continents. In this study, we used 93 complete genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the GISAID EpiFluTM database to decode the evolution and human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2 in the recent two months. Methods. Alignment of coding-regions was conducted haplotype analyses using DnaSP. Substitution sites were analyzed in codon. Evolutionary analysis of haplotypes used NETWORK. Population size changes were estimated using both DnaSP and Arlequin. Expansion date of population size was calculated based on the expansion parameter tau (τ) using the formula t=τ/2u. Findings. Eight coding-regions have 120 substitution sites, including 79 non-synonymous and 40 synonymous substitutions. Forty-two non-synonymous substitutions changed the biochemical property of amino acids. No evident combination was found. Fifty-eight haplotypes were classified as five groups, and 31 haplotypes were found in samples from both China and other countries, respectively. The rooted network suggested H13 and H35 to be ancestral haplotypes, and H1 (and its descendent haplotypes including all samples from the Hua Nan market) was derived H3 haplotype. Population size of SARS-CoV-2 were estimated to have a recent expansion on 6 January 2020, and an early expansion on 8 December 2019. Interpretation. Genomic variations of SARS-CoV-2 are still low in comparisons with published genomes of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Phyloepidemiologic analyses indicated the SARS-CoV-2 source at the Hua Nan market should be imported from other places. The crowded market boosted SARS-CoV-2 rapid circulations in the market and spread it to the whole city in early December 2019. Furthermore, phyloepidemiologic approaches have recovered specific direction of human-to-human transmissions, and the import sources of international infectious cases.

  • 错误的时代:揭示关于古花及其对被子植物系统学的启示的真相

    分类: 生物学 >> 生物进化论 提交时间: 2018-04-20

    摘要:古花Archaeanthus是1984年由Dilcher和Crane根据美国堪萨斯州白垩纪Albian-Cenomanian期的化石材料建立起来的被子植物化石属。当时其胚珠/种子被解释成是沿着果实的腹缝线着生的。这种解释在当时听起来很合理,尤其是考虑到当时盛行的被子植物演化理论。但是Dilcher和Crane关于胚珠/种子着生位置的说法连他们自己的证据都不支持。考虑到古花较早的时代、在古植物学和植物系统学中的重要性和影响力,有必要重新确认古花中胚珠的着生位置及其对心皮同源性及被子植物起源的启示。对于古花模式标本的重新观察表明,除了前人所说的腹面着生外,古花中至少有些胚珠是着生在果实的背面的。这个信息动摇了原作者认为的古花与木兰类之间的亲缘关系,也否定了其对传统的被子植物心皮同源性理论的支持。仔细分析前人关于早期被子植物化石(包括古果、古花和其他化石)的错误解读,可以发现当年Arber和Parkin想当然提出的所谓理论是一百多年以来长期折磨植物学和植物学家的元凶。