摘要：Objective To construct a replication-deficient herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) for delivering a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) and observe its effect in alleviating allodynia in mice. Methods The recombinant HSV-1 vector carrying the shRNA targeting Vglut3 (HSV-1-shvglut3) was constructed and inoculated in the sciatic nerve in a mouse model of mechanical allodynia to test its analgesia effect. Mechanical allodynia and heat hypersensitivity of the mice were tested by von Frey filaments and Hargreaves' test, respectively. VGLUT3 expression in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results Following inoculation in the sciatic nerve, the HSV vector HSV-1-shvglut3 was retrogradely transported to the DRG. Mechanical withdraw thresholds of the mouse models receiving HSV-1-shvglut3 inoculation were reversed to nearly the baseline level, and VGLUT3 expression in the DRG was down-regulated 2 weeks after vector inoculation. The analgesic effect lasted for over 2 weeks in these mice without obvious systematic side effects or changes in heat hypersensitivity threshold. Conclusion Vglut3 in the DRG is a promising therapeutic target for alleviating mechanical allodynia, and HSV-1 vector-mediated RNA interference is safe and efficient for inducing long-lasting analgesia after peripheral inoculation of the vector.