We report the discovery of a massive protostar M17~MIR embedded in a hot molecular core in M17. The multiwavelength data obtained during 1993--2019 show significant mid-IR (MIR) variations, which can be split into three stages: the decreasing phase during 1993.03--mid-2004, the quiescent phase from mid-2004 to mid-2010, and the rebrightening phase from mid-2010 until now. The variation of the 22\,GHz H2O maser emission, together with the MIR variation, indicates an enhanced disk accretion rate onto M17~MIR during the decreasing and rebrightening phases. Radiative transfer modeling of the spectral energy distributions of M17~MIR in the 2005 epoch (quiescent) and 2017 epoch (accretion outburst) constrains the basic stellar parameters of M17~MIR, which is an intermediate-mass protostar (M~5.4 Msun) with accretion rate ~1.1x10^-5 Msun in the 2005 epoch and ~1.7x10^-3 Msun/yr in the 2017 epoch. The enhanced accretion rate during outburst induces the luminosity outburst ΔL≈7600Lsun. In the accretion outburst, a larger stellar radius is required to produce accretion rate consistent with the value estimated from the kinematics of water masers. M17 MIR shows two accretion outbursts (Δt∼9−20 yr) with outburst magnitudes of 2 mag, separated by a 6 yr quiescent phase. The accretion outbusrt occupies 83\% of the time over 26 yr. The accretion rate in outburst is variable with amplitude much lower than the contrast between quiescent and outburst phases. The extreme youth of M17 MIR suggests that minor accretion bursts are frequent in the earliest stages of massive star formation.
摘要： We used the light curve code XRBinary to model the quiescent K2 light curves of three low-inclination cataclysmic variables (CVs): 1RXS\,J0632+2536 (J0632+2536), RZ\,Leo, TW\,Vir and the pre-CV WD\,1144+011. Optimized light curve models were obtained using a nonlinear fitting code NMfit and visualized by Phoebe 2.0. The disk model of J0632+2536 shows that one hotspot at the edge of the disk is enough to describe its light curve, while the other two dwarf nova (DN): RZ\,Leo and TW\,Vir require two hotspots. A typical pre-CV model with a weak irradiation effect for WD\,1144+011 can explain its single-hump modulation and the newly observed spectrum confirms its previous classification. The synthetic analyses for the DN clearly indicate that phase zero of the double-hump modulations occurs around the secondary minimum and the primary hump is mainly caused by the hotspot at the edge of the disk. The quiescent disk has a flat temperature distribution with a power index of $\sim0.11$. The disk model of RZ\,Leo implies a truncated disk, supporting its previously speculated classification as an intermediate polar (IP). Except for the IP model of RZ\,Leo, which lacks a component related to the inferred accretion curtain, the models of J0632+2536, TW\,Vir and WD\,1144+011 are consistent with results from the Gaia mission. The derived masses and radii of the secondaries of the three DN are consistent with the semi-empirical relations for CV donor stars, while their effective temperatures are higher than the predictions. Irradiation of the donor stars is investigated to explain this discrepancy.
摘要：Aims. The quiescent periodic photometric modulations of two low-inclination cataclysmic variables observed in Kepler K2 Campaigns 0 and 1, KZ Gem and TW Vir, are investigated. Methods. A phase-correcting method was successfully used to detect the orbital modulations of KZ Gem and TW Vir and improve their orbital periods. The light curve morphologies of both CVs were further analyzed by defining flux ratios and creating colormaps. Results. KZ Gem shows ellipsoidal modulations with an orbital period of 0.22242(1) day, twice the period listed in the updated RK catalogue (Edition 7.24). With this newly determined period, KZ Gem is no longer a CV in the period gap, but a long-period CV. A part of the quiescent light curve of TW Vir that had the highest stability was used to deduce its improved orbital period of 0.182682(3) day. The flat patterns shown in the colormaps of the flux ratios for KZ Gem demonstrate the stability of their orbital modulations, while TW Vir show variable orbital modulations during the K2 datasets. In TW Vir, the single versus double-peaked nature of the quiescent orbital variations before and after superoutburst may be related to the effect of the superoutburst on the accretion disk.