摘要：In this paper, backscattering of 3-50 keV positrons on Al, Cu, Ag and Au metallic targets has been systematically investigated using GEANT4 code. The dependence of positron backscattering coefficients on atomic number Z, target thickness, incident energy and angles has been discussed comprehensively. Besides, positron backscattering spectra for those metallic targets at different discrete scattering angles were also studied to provide theoretical basis of the most appropriate scattering angle selected for simulation parameters and specified applied measurement techniques. The impact of atomic number Z of targets on positron backscattering spectra was investigated as well. Simulation results are in reasonable agreement with previous experiment data and theoretical work.
摘要：The contribution of positron source for the results of a positron annihilation lifetime spectrum (PALS) is simulated using Geant4 code. The geometrical structure of PALS measurement system is a sandwich structure: the 22Na radiation source is encapsulated by Kapton films, and the specimens are attached on the outside of the films. The probabilities of a positron being annihilated in the films, annihilated in the targets, and the effect of positrons reflected back from the specimen surface, are simulated. The probability of a positron annihilated in the film is related to the species of targets and the source film thickness. The simulation result is in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. Thus, modification of the source contribution calculated by Geant4 is viable, and it beneficial for the analysis of the results of PALS.
摘要：Dislocations would be induced after plastic deformation, which might change the mechanical properties of solids. FeCrNi austenitic model alloy and its Mo-diluted alloy were cold rolled with different degree of thickness reduction. Positrons are sensitive to point defects, which are easily trapped and annihilated around the trapping sites. The mean positron lifetimes have been used to estimate the average dislocation concentration in solids. Meanwhile, the trapping efficiency μ was calculated from the lifetime results. The trapping efficiency value is estimated about 3.31×10-7 cm3s-1 for FeCrNi alloy and 3.31×10-7 cm3s-1 for Mo-diluted alloy, respectively. The increment of the hardness value during plastic deformation is related to the increase of the dislocation density and dislocation pile up in solids.
摘要： Solution annealed type 316L austenitic stainless steels were irradiated using 2 MeV Fe ions at room temperature. The implanted fluences were 2012 ions/cm2 and 1013 ions/cm2, respectively. Variable mono-energetic positron beam was performed to characterize the evolution of microstructure and irradiation induced defects. Results show that large amount of vacancy defects formed after heavy ion irradiation. In which, some of mono-vacancies might migrate to form small-sized clusters at room temperature. After irradiation, implanted Fe atoms mainly be interstitials atoms, but some Fe atoms might recombine with vacancies due to their high mobility, which could decrease the defect concentration, effectively.
摘要：An element analysis method, coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy of slow positron annihilation, was employed to detect helium in ion irradiated Fe9Cr alloys. Spectra with higher peak to background ratio were recorded using a two-HPGe-detector coincidence measuring system. It means that information in the high-momentum area of the spectra can be used to identify helium in metals. This identification is not entirely dependent on the helium concentration in the specimens, but is related to the structure and microscopic arrangement of atoms surrounding the positron annihilation site. The results of Doppler broadening spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that vacancies and dislocations were formed in ion irradiated specimens. Thermal helium desorption spectrometry was performed to obtain the types of He traps.
摘要：Chitosan, CS, cross-linked with bivalent palladium has shown enhanced mechanical and thermal properties depending on the transformation of the structure at a microscopic scale. In the present study, CS directly cross-linked by palladium cation membranes (CS-cr-PM) were prepared through solution-casting method. The motion of chitosan chains was great suppressed after crosslinking, making a great reduce of swelling ratio by a water-swelling degree measurement, which led to molecular chain rigidity to be improvement. In order to investigate the chain packing at the molecular level in the ionic cross-linked CS system, the structure of chemically-crosslinked CS is investigated by means of the combined use of wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), Infrared measurements, and a combination of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and simultaneous coincidence Doppler broadening (CDB) spectroscopy offers coherent information on both the free-volume related sub-nano level molecular packing and the chemical surrounding of free volume nanoholes in CS-cr-PM as a function of palladium salt loading. The variations in free volume size and size distribution have been determined through the ortho-positroium (o-Ps) lifetime and its lifetime distribution. The studies showed that strong interaction between CS molecules and palladium cations results in the change of crystallinity in formed CS-cr-PM leading to variational chain packing density. Meanwhile, significant inhibition effects on positronium formation due to doping are observed, which could be interpreted in terms of the existence of chlorid ion. Applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the microstructure and correlated positron annihilation characteristics in ionic cross-linked CS system are systematic discussed.
摘要：Here, we investigated the irradiation defect in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by slow positron beam. Three ion-irradiation experiments were carried out: (i) He2+ irradiation, (ii) H+ irradiation and (iii) He2+ irradiation followed by H+ irradiation, at temperature 450 oC. The presents of vacancy defects, represented by ∆SHe+H parameter, induced by sequential irradiations was larger than the sum of defects, ∆SHe parameter + ∆SH parameter, caused by single He ions and single H ions. The synergistic effect of He and H was confirmed clearly from the perspective of positron annihilation spectroscopy.
摘要：Fe–0.6%Cu alloy was irradiated with H ions to 0.1 dpa, and then annealed for 30 min from 150 oC to 500 oC. We focused the evolution of Cu precipitates in irradiated Fe–0.6%Cu alloy after the isochronal annealing from the perspective of positron annihilation. The ΔW parameters after thermal annealing (400 oC and 500 oC) were much larger than that induced by 0.1 dpa H irradiation. Annealing could promote the aggregation of the Cu-vacancy complexes, and form the Cu cluster–vacancies complexes. When the vacancy-like defects recovered around 500 oC, it meant the formation and growing of the defect-free Cu precipitates.
摘要：The correlation between Cu precipitates and vacancy-like defects in three Fe-Cu model alloys, Fe-0.15%Cu, Fe-0.3%Cu and Fe-0.6%Cu, irradiated at 400 °C with hydrogen ions at doses from 0.045 to 0.45 dpa, were revealed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. The formation of vacancy-like defects surrounded by tiny Cu precipitates induced the increment of the S and W parameters after irradiation. The peak value of the relative W parameter (ΔW/W), as the high momentum information on Cu precipitates, located in the track region and decreased with irradiation dose increased from 0.045 dpa to 0.45 dpa. The information on high momentum depended on the coverage fraction of the defects by Cu atoms. The effect of the irradiation dose, the irradiation depth and the Cu content on the Cu coverage fraction of the defects has been investigated in the present work
摘要：The evolution of microstruture for Fe16.7Cr14.5Ni model alloy and 316 stainless steel irradiated with 140 keV He ions were studied by Positron annihilation spectroscopy. The fluences were 1016 and 5016 He ions/cm2. The irradiation temperature was room temperature and 573 K, respectively. The variation of S parameter-incident positron energy profile indicated that large amount of vacancy-type defects formed after He ion irradiation. Meanwhile, helium atoms deposited in bulk and certain amount of He-vacancy complexes were formed. The vacancy-type defects could be the major defects in track region and He-vacancy complexes would be the main defects in cascade region. The vacancy-type defects could migrate and aggregate to form vacancy clusters and even microvoids at elevated temperature irradiation. The diffusion mechanism of helium atoms might be changed at different irradiation temperature.
摘要：The formation of Cu precipitates in Fe-0.3%Cu binary model alloy after hydrogen ion irradiation at 400 was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy based on slow positron beam. In order to study the effect of elevated temperature for the Cu precipitates, the annealing treatment at 400 in Fe-0.3%Cu alloy was also investigated. The S-parameters of specimens increased with the irradiation dose increased, especially in the damage peak region. H+ implantation produced a large number of vacancy-type defects in Fe-0.3%Cu alloy. Compared to the unirradiated samples, the irradiated specimens show an overall major increase in W parameter values. Experimental results indicate that Cu precipitates formed easily under lower irradiation dose at elevated temperature. No obvious Cu precipitates formed when Fe-0.3%Cu alloy was annealed for 2h at 400 .
摘要：A series of Sm-doped LDPE-Na2SO4 composites were successfully achieved by melt mixing and hot pressing methods. Their morphology, structure and luminescent properties were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and photoexcitation (PE), photoluminescence (PL) spectra, respectively. The sizes and concentrations of free volume cavities in composites were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). SEM micrographs showed that Na2SO4:Sm3+ particles were well-distributed in the polymer matrix. XRD analyses revealed that the addition of Na2SO4:Sm3+ had no effect on the original crystal structure of LDPE. The dominant photoexcitation peak was observed at about 402 nm. The photoluminescence spectra consisted of four main peaks at 563, 598, 644 and 706 nm which could be associated to the transitions 4G5/2→6HJ (J=5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2, respectively) within the 4f5 electronic configuration of Sm3+. The effect of different doping concentration of Na2SO4:Sm3+ on the luminescent properties of the composites was investigated. The luminescent intensity of the composites increased with phosphor concentration.
摘要：A vibronic photoexcitation band at approximately 230 nm was found at 13 K in reactor neutron- and electron-irradiated magnesiumaluminate spinel ( MgOAl2O3). Vibronic structure was found to be temperature dependent and became obscure at over 120K. Huang Rhys factor S and Debye Temperature D were estimated from the temperature dependence of the 230 nm band bycurve-fitting method using Debye approximation. Origin of the vibronic photoexcitation band was suggested as F center.
摘要：The comprehensive structural and luminescence study of Sm-doped SiO2-Na2SO4 composite materials are reported. The samples were synthesized by melt-mixing mixture of Na2SO4 and SmF3 into the SiO2 matrix at 1050 C for 30 min. X-ray di raction (XRD) pattern shows the characteristic structure of the SiO2 and addition of 20% Na2SO4:Sm has no e ect on the basic crystal structure of the SiO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows the clear di erence in morphological structure between the composite and host SiO2. From photoexcitation (PE) spectra of the as-synthesized composite, the highest excitation e ciency was observed at 402 nm. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of as-synthesized composite phosphors obtained under 402 nm excitation consist of five narrow emission bands with peaks at 563, 598, 644, 704 and 784 nm. These are assigned to the 4G5=2 ! 6HJ (J=5/2, 7/2, 9/2, 11/2 and 13/2, respectively) transitions within 4f5 electronic configuration of Sm3+. Highest luminescence intensity was observed with SiO2-10%Na2SO4:Sm.
摘要：The vacancy-type defects induced by co-implantation of He and H ions in China Low Activation Martensitic (CLAM) steel at room temperature were investigated with a variable-energy position beam Doppler broadening spectra (DBS). The co- implantation contained two patterns: one was implanted by He ions firstly, and then followed by H-ions implantation; the other was implanted by H ions in the first place, after that followed by He-ions implantation. The S parameters of implanted samples became larger than un-implanted one under different implantation fluences, and the S parameters of pre-implanted H were larger than pre-implanted He regardless of fluence. The difference of S parameters between pre-implanted H and He decreased with increasing fluence. He-H-vacancy complex is the reason that the S parameter of pre-implanted H is higher than pre-implanted He
摘要：ZnO films became ferromagnetic when defects were introduced by thermal annealing in flowing argon. This ferromagnetism, as shown by the photoluminescence measurement and positron annihilation analysis, was induced by the singly occupied oxygen vacancy, with a saturated magnetization dependent positively on the amount of this vacancy. This study clarified the origin of the ferromagnetism of un-doped ZnO thin films, and provides possibly an alternative way to prepare ferromagnetic ZnO films.
摘要：Iron(Fe)-doped InN (InN:Fe) layers have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Unlike Fe in GaN, the Fe is found to be donor-like in InN. However, the Fe-concentrations ([Fe]) can’t fully explain the drastic increase of residual electron concentration. Further analysis shows that more unintentionally doped impurities such as hydrogen and oxygen are incorporated with increasing [Fe] and the sample surface is degraded with a large number of pits, which probably are the main reasons for electron generation and mobility reduction. Photoluminescence of InN is also gradually quenched by Fe-doping. This work shows that Fe-doping is one of good choices to control electron density in InN
摘要：In order to study the microstructural evolution of the He+ irradiated FeCrNi model alloy, 140 keV He+ ions were implanted into the specimen with the fluence of 1015 ions/cm2 at room temperature. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy was used to characterize the evolution of micro defects during isochronal annealing between 423 K and 873 K. The decrease of the S parameter between 573 K and 623 K has been associated to the annihilation of vacancy clusters, which were not trapped by helium atom. While the decline of the S parameter between 773 K and 823 K in the damage region might be caused by the dissociation of HenVm clusters. The dissociated vacancy clusters were unstable and annihilated rapidly, which decreases the concentration of vacancy defects.
摘要：A comparative study on the morphology, structure and luminescence modifications of LDPE–Na2SO4:Sm3+ composite induced by gamma irradiation was reported for the first time. The composites were irradiated with irradiation doses of 10, 30, and 50 kGy in air at room temperature. Modifications on structural and luminescence properties of LDPE–Na2SO4:Sm3+ composites were investigated by using several analytical methods. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed that the cross-linking improved the crystallinity of the composites. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images illustrated the surface modifications of composites induced by irradiation. Results of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) suggested that gamma irradiation affected the free volumes concentrations in the samples. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of non-irradiated and irradiated composites consisted of four main peaks at 563, 598, 644 and 706 nm which could be assigned to the 4G5/2 6HJ (J =5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2, respectively) transitions within the electronic configuration of Sm3+. Meanwhile, we observed an additional peak at about 686 nm in the irradiated composites, owing to the conversion of Sm3+ Sm2+. Concentrations of the Sm2+ centers linearly increased with gamma irradiation doses, which partly accounted for the degradation of PL intensity of Sm3+ peaks.
摘要：The effect of annealing on VmHn complexes and Cu precipitate behaviors in hydrogen ion irradiated Fe and Fe-0.3%Cu alloys was investigated by positron annihilation spectroscopy using a slow positron beam. The results of S parameters indicated that the room temperature irradiation was benefit for the formation of the VmHn complex compared to the elevated temperature irradiation. The S-W results confirmed the formation of Cu precipitates in Fe-0.3%Cu even at the irradiation dose of 0.1 dpa. The formation of the evident S value peaks in the damage region after annealing treatment suggested that the VmHn complexes were broken and a larger of hydrogen atoms were escaping. The residual vacancy defects would migrate towards both the surface region and the opposite direction with the increasing annealing temperature.