This paper focus on the researches of Maximal Independent Set (MIS). Based on reading and analysis of several recent papers, we divide the MIS problems into several classifications. The first is the classification based on the research objects, including the solution and maintenance of MIS; the second is the classification based on research methods, including serial, parallel, deterministic and randomized algorithms; the third is experimental analysis, including worst time complexity and expected time complexity.
摘要： In the early days of the epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to insufficient knowledge of the pandemic, inadequate nucleic acid tests, lack of timely data reporting, etc., the origin time of the onset of COVID-19 is difficult to determine. Therefore, source tracing is crucial for infectious disease prevention and control. The purpose of this paper is to infer the origin time of pandemic of COVID-19 based on a data and model hybrid driven method. We model the testing positive rate to fit its actual trend, and use the least squares estimation to obtain the optimal model parameters. Further, the kernel density estimation is applied to infer the origin time of pandemic given the specific confidence probability. By selecting 12 representative regions in the United States for analysis, the dates of the first infected case with 50% confidence probability are mostly between August and October 2019, which are earlier than the officially announced date of the first confirmed case in the United States on January 20, 2020. The experimental results indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States starts to spread around September 2019 with a high confidence probability. In addition, the existing confirmed cases are also used in Wuhan City and Zhejiang Province in China to infer the origin time of COVID-19 and provide the confidence probability. The results show that the spread of COVID-19 pandemic in China is likely to begin in late December 2019.
摘要：The Penman-Monteith (PM) method is the most widely used technique to estimate potential worldwide evapotranspiration. However, current research shows that there may be significant errors in the application of this method in arid areas, although questions remain as to the degree of this estimation error and how different surface conditions may affect the estimation error. To address these issues, we evaluated the uncertainty of the PM method under different underlying conditions in an arid area of Northwest China by analyzing data from 84 meteorological stations and various Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, including land surface temperature and surface albedo. First, we found that when the PM method used air temperature to calculate the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve, it significantly overestimated the potential evapotranspiration; the mean annual and July–August overestimation was 83.9 and 36.7 mm, respectively. Second, the PM method usually set the surface albedo to a fixed value, which led to the potential evapotranspiration being underestimated; the mean annual underestimation was 27.5 mm, while the overestimation for July to August was 5.3 mm. Third, the PM method significantly overestimated the potential evapotranspiration in the arid area. This difference in estimation was closely related to the underlying surface conditions. For the entire arid zone, the PM method overestimated the potential evapotranspiration by 33.7 mm per year, with an overestimation of 29.0 mm from July to August. The most significant overestimation was evident in the mountainous and plain non-vegetation areas, in which the annual mean overestimation reached 5% and 10%, respectively; during July, there was an estimation of 10% and 20%, respectively. Although the annual evapotranspiration of the plains with better vegetation coverage was slightly underestimated, overestimation still occurred in July and August, with a mean overestimation of approximately 5%. In order to estimate potential evapotranspiration in the arid zone, it is important that we identify a reasonable parameter with which to calibrate the PM formula, such as the slope of the saturation vapor pressure curve, and the surface albedo. We recommend that some parameters must be corrected when using PM in order to estimate potential evapotranspiration in arid regions.
摘要： The surface wind speed (SWS) is affected by both large-scale circulation and land use and cover change (LUCC). In China, most studies have considered the effect of large-scale circulation rather than LUCC on SWS. In this study, we evaluated the effects of LUCC on the SWS decrease during 1979–2015 over China using the observation minus reanalysis (OMR) method. There were two key findings: (1) Observed wind speed declined significantly at a rate of 0.0112 m/(s•a), whereas ERA-Interim, which can only capture the inter-annual variation of observed data, indicated a gentle downward trend. The effects of LUCC on SWS were distinct and caused a decrease of 0.0124 m/(s•a) in SWS; (2) Due to variations in the characteristics of land use types across different regions, the influence of LUCC on SWS also varied. The observed wind speed showed a rapid decline over cultivated land in Northwest China, as well as a decrease in China's northeastern and eastern plain regions due to the urbanization. However, in the Tibetan Plateau, the impact of LUCC on wind speed was only slight and can thus be ignored.
摘要：Tooth reduction and loss was an important evolutionary process in Mesozoic birds. Analysis of evolutionary trends in the total mass of the dentition, a function of tooth size and tooth number, has the potential to shed light on the evolutionary pattern of tooth reduction and loss, and on the causes of this pattern. Because modern birds lack teeth, however, they cannot provide the basis for a model that would allow estimation of tooth masses in their Mesozoic counterparts. We selected the teeth of crocodilians as analogues of those in Mesozoic birds because the former are the closest living relatives of the latter, and the two groups are similar in tooth morphology, tooth implantation, and tooth replacement pattern. To estimate tooth masses in Mesozoic birds, we formulated four regression equations relating tooth mass to various linear dimensions, which were measured in 31 intact isolated teeth from eight individual crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis). The results for Mesozoic birds show that dental mass as a proportion of body mass was negligible, at least from the perspective of flight performance, suggesting that selection pressure favoring body mass reduction was probably not the primary driver of tooth reduction or loss. Variations in dental mass among Mesozoic birds may reflect the different foods they ate, and the different types of feeding behavior they displayed.
摘要：The BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) developed by China, and provided official service for Asia-pacific region freely since 2012. With development of BDS, BDS-based time transfer has become an important research direction in BDS’s application fields. At present, the main method of BDS-based time transfer is BDS Common View (BDS CV), which can reach nanoseconds magnitude. Hence, we investigate the performance time transfer based on BDS precise point positioning (PPP) toward UTC/TAI compute. In this contribution, we focus on UTC/TAI comparison based on BDS PPP by using developed quad-constellation GNSS software, which called National Time System Center’s (NTSC) Bernese. And a long-term data analysis is presented. The experiments include two parts: (1) The reliability of the software and multi-GNSS products; (2) The performance of the BDS PPP toward International UTC/TAI comparison. The experimental results reveal that the accuracy of NTSC’s Bernese GPS PPP can reach about 0.1 ns relative to BIPM TAI PPP solutions. Compared with BIPM TAI PPP solutions, the accuracy of GPS PPP solutions can achieve about 0.2 ns by using multi-GNSS precise products, such as GBM, COM. For BDS PPP solutions, the solutions of GPS PPP are regarded as reference values. It is demonstrated that the accuracy of time transfer based on BDS PPP can reach better 1 ns toward UTC/TAI comparison for the statistics of 30 days-arc solutions, while 0.1 ns magnitude can be achieved for the statistics of daily solutions due to the influence of the day boundary discontinuity. Moreover, four different processing strategies of BDS PPP which include tropospheric delay fixed, tropospheric delay and coordinates fixed, coordinates fixed, and BDS-only are tested. Results show that the comparable accuracy can be achieved for four processing strategies. Hence, one can conclude that the time transfer based on BDS-only PPP show a good performance toward UTC/TAI computation.
摘要：Reconstructing the diet of extinct species is a fundamental goal in vertebrate paleobiology. Dental calculus is the calcium phosphate deposits on teeth, which captures a large number of food particles and contains the food information of ancient animal. It is possible to explore ancient animal dietary and investigate the environmental information from dental calculus. A large number of starch granules were found in dental calculus of Dicros gansuensis excavated from the earliest Late Miocene Guonigou fauna of the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province. It is the first time that starch granules from Late Miocene were found. We classified the ancient starch granules by its morphological characteristics and also analyzed the starch granules of leaves of modern plants around the living environment of D. gansuensis to find modern starch granules and compare them with ancient ones. The results indicate that D. gansuensis may eat not only shrubs leaves, such as the plant from Caprifoliaceae, but also some tree leaves from Juglandaceae (walnut), and maybe some herbs from Ranunculaceae and Polygonaceae. It is consistent with the results of previous morphological studies, and it also provides more information. Our study extends the range of time and object for dental calculus research, and offers more possibilities for research on feeding habits of ancient mammals.
摘要：The transformation from a long reptilian tail to a shortened tail ending in a pygostyle and accompanied by aerodynamic fanning rectrices is one of the most remarkable adaptations of early avian evolution. However, no fossils directly capture this transition, and information regarding the structural morphology and the early evolution of the pygostyle in Mesozoic birds and their integuments is relatively limited. Here we provide a review of the pygostyle morphology of Early Cretaceous birds with comparison to the structure in living birds. This study emphasizes the convergent evolution of distally co-ossified caudal vertebrae in non-avian maniraptorans and early birds. There further exist distinct differences in pygostyle morphology between Sapeornithiformes, Confuciusornithiformes, Enantiornithes, and Ornithuromorpha. The morphology of the pygostyle and rectrices in early ornithuromorphs appear similar to that of extant birds, whereas the pygostyle in more primitive birds does not appear morphologically capable of supporting the rectricial bulbs and musculature necessary to control an aerodynamic fan-shaped tail. The rectricial bulbs and rectricial fan appear to have coevolved with the plough-shaped pygostyle early in the evolution of the Ornithuromorpha. This study also shows that the confuciusornithiform pygostyle was more similar to that of enantiornithines than previously recognized, consistent with the presence of nearly identical ornamental tail feathers in both groups. 从兽脚类恐龙中爬行类的骨质长尾，到以尾综骨为终端，并附着具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽的短巧尾部，是早期鸟类演化中最显著的适应性转变之一。但能直接反映这一转变的化石记录匮乏，而且对中生代鸟类尾部形态结构，以及尾综骨和尾羽早期演化的认知也相对不足。在此对早白垩世鸟类的尾综骨形态予以概述并将其与现生鸟类尾部结构类比。本研究强调了非鸟手盗龙类中尾椎的联合骨化与早期鸟类的尾综骨实属趋同演化。本研究表明，会鸟形类、孔子鸟形类、反鸟类和今鸟型类的尾综骨结构存在明显差异。今鸟型类尾综骨和尾羽(舵羽)与现代鸟类的相似，而相对更原始的鸟类的尾综骨，从形态来看，并不能支持舵羽球状膨大和必要的肌肉附着来操控具有空气动力学功能的扇状尾羽。由此可见，舵羽球状膨大、舵羽扇面与犁铧状的尾综骨是在今鸟型类演化早期相伴相生的。相对于从前的认知，本研究还发现孔子鸟类的尾综骨与反鸟类的有更多相似之处，与二者都具有的几乎相同的装饰性尾羽相符合。
摘要： A new species of large Irdinmanhan brontothere, Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov., is described based on an incomplete skull which was collected from the Üqbulak Formation of Sangequan site, Junggar Basin of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The new specimen can be assigned to the genus Epimanteoceras by the large superorbital processes, the broad frontal bone, the shallow central fossae on the molars, and the absence of the anterolingual cingular cusp on molars and the hypocone on M3. E. mae is characterized by the slightly laterally bowed zygomatic arches, the medially arched parasagittal ridges, the posteromedially angled external auditory pseudomeatus, and the prominent occipital pillar processes. E. mae and E. formosus are closely related. It is uncertain whether E. mae or E. formosus forms the sister group to Brontotheriina, but both of them are the basal group of the latter in the phylogenetic analysis. They are both closed to the Irdinmanhan brontothere Protitan grangeri from Nei Mongol but much primitive than Aktautitan hippopotamopus from Kazakhstan. The discovery of E. mae in Sangequan indicates that the age of Üqbulak Formation is Middle Eocene, and earlier than that of Kyzylbulak Formation bearing A. hippopotamopus in Kazakhstan. Moreover, the discovery of E. mae in Xinjiang expanded the distribution of the genus Epimanteoceras, which was only found in Nei Mongol previously. 新疆准噶尔盆地三个泉中始新世依希白拉组内发现的晚叉额雷兽属新种－马氏晚叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras mae sp. nov.)是新疆目前发现保存最好的雷兽头骨化石。标本为一件不完整的头骨，缺失鼻骨，前颌骨，部分上颌骨和泪骨。新种具有眶上突较粗大，额骨宽阔平坦，臼齿有中心窝，臼齿舌侧齿带前部上的齿尖不发育，M3无次尖等晚叉额雷兽属的特征。新种的颧弓成向外扩的弓形，额顶嵴在后侧向内收缩弯曲的弧度更大，外耳道较为倾斜，枕柱上方有舌状的突起，与唯一的属型种娇晩叉额雷兽(Epimanteoceras formosus)明显不同。马氏晚叉额雷兽同属型种关系最近，两者在系统发育分析中同为雷兽亚族(Brontotheriina)的基干类群，但是两者是否为后者的姊妹类群尚无法确定。和属型种一样，马氏晚叉额雷兽在演化程度上与内蒙古伊尔丁曼哈期的谷氏原雷兽(Protitan grangeri)接近，但与同时期地理位置更近的哈萨克斯坦的雷兽Aktautitan hippopotamopus相比，马氏晚叉额雷兽较原始，表明新种所在的地层时代很可能要早于发现A. hippopotamopus地层。三个泉剖面依希白拉组伊尔丁曼哈期内以前发现的化石较少，此次马氏晚叉额雷兽的发现，不仅扩大了晚叉额雷兽属的地理分布，亦为依希白拉组内存在伊尔丁曼哈期的沉积提供了新的佐证。
摘要：嵌齿象是真象的基干类群，其研究历来受到重视，同时也存在很多争议。维曼嵌齿象(Gomphotherium wimani)是中国的一个特有种，之前仅有一些牙齿和破碎下颌的报道，研究者对其形态特征和演化地位的认识一直比较模糊。本文报道了发现于甘肃省临夏盆地的维曼嵌齿象的新材料，包括上沟地点一件未成年头骨和倒黑沟地点属于同一个体的部分颊齿。通过研究对比，认为维曼嵌齿象是嵌齿象中一个比较进步的种，具有如下独有特征：颊齿的主齿柱前后中心小尖分裂并成嵴状，副齿柱趋向于分裂，发育有弱的副齿柱中心小尖，齿谷中等开阔，齿冠相对较高。对过去发现的维曼嵌齿象材料的厘定表明，该种最初建立时产于泉头沟地点的一颗m3实际上是葛氏铲齿象(Platybelodon grangeri)的M3; 而西宁吊沟地点发现的维曼嵌齿象的一件M3极有可能属于铲齿象类(amebelodontids)。对厘定后的维曼嵌齿象地点的研究表明，维曼嵌齿象分布于中国甘肃、青海的几个中中新统地点，其时代基本上可以与MN6−MN7/8早期相对比，时代跨度估计为15~13 Ma。
摘要： The diets and environments of fossil rhinocerotoids from the Linxia Basin, Gansu, China, ranging in age from 25 to 2.5 Ma, were reconstructed based on bulk and serial carbon (C) and oxygen (O) isotope analyses of tooth enamel. The results support many previous hypotheses inferred from dentition and cranial and limb morphology and offer new insight on the paleoecology of some genera. The isotopic results support the following previous hypotheses: the Late Oligocene rhino Paraceratherium inhabited a forested environment, and the coexisting rhino Allacerops lived in a relatively open habitat and had a less specialized diet; the Middle Miocene Hispanotherium grazed in open territory, whereas the contemporaneous Alicornops had a more generalized diet in a forested environment; and the Late Miocene rhino Parelasmotherium grazed in an open steppe habitat. The isotope data indicate that the rhinos Acerorhinus and Dicerorhinus inhabited open steppe environments, inconsistent with previous inferences that these two rhinos dwelled in forested environments. The isotopic results are not conclusive concerning the habitat of Iranotherium, but support previous hypotheses that this rhino was a specialized C3 grazer. The results also suggest that Chilotherium was a forest-dweller throughout much of the Late Miocene, but occupied a more open environment by the end of the Late Miocene. Additionally, the results are consistent with previous hypotheses that the Pliocene rhino Shansirhinus and the Pleistocene rhino Coelodonta were grazers in open habitats. Finally, the C isotope data support that all rhinos in this study were pure C3 feeders, confirming that C4 grasses were not an important component of the plant biomass in the Linxia Basin from 25 to 2.5 Ma. 根据牙齿釉质的全样和系列碳、氧同位素分析，重建了甘肃临夏盆地25~2.5Ma期间犀牛的食性和环境。其结果支持先前根据牙齿和头骨-肢骨形态做出的一些推断，并对部分属的古生态提出了新的看法。同位素结果支持如下的推断：晚渐新世的巨犀Paraceratherium生活于森林环境，而与其共生的异角犀Allacerops栖息地相对开阔，食性特化程度低；中中新世的西班牙犀Hispanotherium在开阔领地上取食草本植物，而同时代的奇角犀Alicornops在森林环境中具有更特化的食性；晚中新世的副板齿犀Parelasmotherium在开阔的稀树草原上取食草本植物。与先前认为无鼻角犀Acerorhinus和额鼻角犀Dicerorhinus生活于森林化环境的推断不同，数据指示这两种犀牛也生活于开阔的稀树草原环境。同位素结果未能得出伊朗犀Iranotherium的确切生活环境，但支持先前认为它特化为C3草本植物取食者的推断。研究结果也显示大唇犀Chilotherium在晚中新世的大多数时间内是森林生活者，但其在晚中新世末期占据了更开阔的环境。此外，分析结果与先前的推断一致，即上新世的山西犀Shansirhinus和更新世的披毛犀Coelodonta是开阔生活环境中的食草者。最后，碳同位素数据支持在此项研究中的所有犀牛都是纯C3取食者，确认C4植物不是临夏盆地从25Ma到2.5Ma期间植被的重要成分。
摘要：Regalerpeton weichangensis was established in 2009 on an incomplete skeleton preserved mainly as an impression from the Lower Cretaceous of Hebei, China. However, several anatomical characters were misinterpreted due to distortion of the holotype, and its taxonomic position has been in debate. In this paper, R. weichangensis is redescribed based on eight new specimens and its diagnosis and phylogenetic position are re-examined. This work shows that R. weichangensis was a neotenic form with ossified carpals and tarsals. It has a series of unique combination of characteristics including the vomer with a transverse vomerine tooth row, anterior end of the cultriform process of the parasphenoid indented, basibranchial II triradiate and scapulocoracoid with a rectangular coracoid end. Phylogenetic analysis suggests Regalerpeton, Jeholotriton and Pangerpeton should be placed in the suborder Salamandroidea with three synapomorphies. Moreover, they also share unicapitate ribs with Cryptobranchoidea, which indicates that they represent an important stage of evolution in the Cryptobranchoidea-Salamandroidea split. 围场皇家螈(Regalerpeton weichangensis)于2009年基于一件产自河北围场下白垩统不完整的骨骼印痕标本命名。然而由于标本变形导致皇家螈的部分解剖学特征被曲解，系统发育位置也存在争论。本文基于八件新标本对该蝾螈的鉴定特征和系统发育位置进行了修订。研究显示，皇家螈是一种腕骨和跗骨骨化的幼态持续型蝾螈，具有独特的特征组合，包括犁骨齿列横向排列、副蝶骨前端呈齿状、基鳃骨II呈三射型以及肩胛乌喙骨的乌喙端呈矩形。新的系统发育分析根据三个近裔共性将围场皇家螈、热河螈和胖螈归入蝾螈亚目。此外，它们还与隐鳃鲵亚目共有“肋骨单关节头”这一特征，显示这三种蝾螈可能代表了隐鳃鲵亚目与蝾螈亚目分离时期这一重要演化阶段。
摘要： The new fossils of Bos primigenius in this study came from two regions in Hebei Province: Nihewan Basin (one partial skull with right horn-core and one humerus) and Longhua County (one humerus, one tibia, 2 calcanea and 3 astragali). The humerus from Nihewan has a total length of 457.3 mm, which almost represents the largest aurochs individual which has a two-meter shoulder height. The biggest humerus and other big cranial specimens in northern China can be correlated with the European counterparts of late Middle Pleistocene, and they should be contemporary. The smaller sized limb-bones from Longhua were unearthed from loess deposits, which can be attributed to Late Pleistocene. The current knowledge shows that aurochs may have arrived in China earlier than Late Pleistocene, because its associated taxa, e.g. Canis lupus, Panthera tigris, Mammuthus primigenius, Equus caballus, Coelodonta antiquitatis, Sus scrofa, Camelus knoblochi, Cervus elaphus, Alces alces and Bison priscus have appeared as early as late Middle Pleistocene or even earlier in Eastern Europe and Northern Eurasia. Furthermore, new numerical dating results show that the aurochs’ occurrences from some sites in China can be traced back to Middle Pleistocene. This study proposes that the larger sized aurochs should be of a late Middle Pleistocene age. In China, aurochs fossils mainly occur in the northern part and the transitional zone along the Huaihe River, but are absent in southern China and Southeast Asia, which resulted in the hypothesis of “Central Asian Corridor” through which aurochs reached China. In recent years as more bovini fossils were recovered in Africa, the Bos phylogeny was proposed, which assumed that the evolution of Bos lineage took place in Africa rather than in Eurasia as thought before, and the earliest ancestor of B. primigenius is Pelorovis turkanensis, finally the genus Bos dispersed into Eurasia at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene. The present authors think that the African Pelorovis species are too different from the Bos lineage in morphology; on the contrary, the early Bos species from Siwalik in South Asia resembles B. primigenius very much. In China, most of the B. primigenius fossils were recovered from fluvio-lacustrine deposits in North China Plain, Loess Plateau and Song-Nen Plain, whereas few of them were from loess deposit, which means that the aurochs fossils could be employed as an indicator of warm climate and wet environment. 原始牛(Bos primigenius)化石新材料包括泥河湾盆地禾尧庄的1件角心、上沙嘴的1件肱骨和承德隆化的1件肱骨、1件胫骨、1件踝骨、2件跟骨和3件距骨；其中上沙嘴的肱骨化石长达457.3 mm, 代表迄今在我国境内发现的最大原始牛个体，也是该种的最大记录之一，推算其所属动物的肩高接近2 m; 北京门头沟珠窝的原始牛头骨的眶后宽度及角心周长数据也是该种的最大记录之一；禾尧庄的角心标本稍小，但也比晚更新世多数同类要大；这些巨大的化石与欧洲中更新世晚期同类十分接近，其时代也应当与之相当，为中更新世晚期；过去认为原始牛在我国只出现于晚更新世地层，但现在看来该种在中更新世晚期就已扩散到中国。东欧及北亚的最新化石证据表明，过去认为与原始牛共生的晚更新世化石组合的常见属种早在中更新世晚期或更早时期就已出现，其中包括灰狼、虎、真猛犸象、马、真披毛犀、野猪、诺氏驼、赤鹿、驼鹿及草原野牛等。最新测年数据也表明中国北方有几个含原始牛化石的遗址是形成于中更新世晚期；本文认为华北和西北地区个体巨大的原始牛，代表中更新世晚期，而个体较小的则可能代表晚更新世或全新世；近些年在东北地区发现大量原始牛化石，但其中少见个体巨大者。在我国，原始牛化石分布只局限于北方及淮河过渡区，而在南方及毗邻的东南亚地区均未发现此类化石；因此，有人提出原始牛很可能是在中更新世中、晚期通过中亚走廊(Central Asian Corridor)进入中国。不过，近些年在非洲也发现了一些牛属(Bos)化石，因此有人又提出了牛属非洲起源的“奥杜威牛–牛属演化谱系”(Pelorovis–Bos lineage), 但该学说所依据的奥杜威牛化石材料，在形态结构上与牛属相去甚远，难以归入同类；此外，非洲可靠的牛属化石记录均未超过1 Ma。本文作者支持传统的牛属“南亚起源学说”，因为在南亚西瓦里克地区发现的早期牛属化石不仅时代更古老(早于2 Ma), 并且在形态上与原始牛更为相似。中国北方的原始牛化石主要发现于华北平原、黄土高原和松嫩平原的河湖相堆积层，仅极个别出现于黄土地层；由此推断原始牛可能更喜欢水系发育的林缘和/或沼泽环境。
摘要：Tetrapod assemblages provide a useful means for global correlation of the terrestrial Triassic sedimentary deposits, but currently no reliable temporal framework has been achieved for the Middle Triassic tetrapod assemblages. Here we report U-Pb zircon chemical abrasion–thermal ionization mass spectrometry dates for five volcanic ashes interbedded with vertebrate fossils from the Ermaying and Tongchuan formations of China. Our results support a late Anisian age for the Sinokannemeyeria Fauna and an early Ladinian age for Yonghesuchus Fauna. It is now possible, through biostratigraphic correlation, to provide accurate ages to other Middle Triassic successions such as the Upper Cynognathus Assemblage Zone of the Karoo of South Africa, the Eryosuchus fauna of the Donguz Suite of Russia and the Karamayi Formation of Xinjiang, China. The base of Anisian (Lower/Middle Triassic boundary) should lie below the base of the Ermaying Formation in the Ordos Basin. 四足动物组合带是全球陆相三叠系对比的有力手段，但是迄今为止中三叠世的四足动物组合尚没有可靠的时间框架。本文报道了五个采自二马营组和铜川组，与四足动物化石共同产出的火山凝灰岩样品的锆石化学剥蚀-热电离质谱法年龄。结果表明中国肯氏兽动物群时代为安尼期晚期，而永和鳄的时代为拉丁期早期。通过生物地层对比，这一结果还为其他中三叠世的四足动物组合，如南非的犬颌兽带上部、俄罗斯的引鳄动物群以及新疆的克拉玛依组提供了准确的年龄。鄂尔多斯盆地下中三叠统界线应低于二马营组底界。
摘要： Five taxa of Cervidae were identified from the new collection at Tuchengzi locality in Huade, Nei Mongol: Eostyloceros blainvillei, E. triangularis, Euprox sp., Cervavitus huadeensis and C. shanxius, among which the first three taxa were discovered for the first time in Huade area, and the dental specimens of the last two taxa from Tuchengzi locality are also described for the first time. E. blainvillei is a large muntiacine, diagnosed by long, thick and medially curved main beam and a relatively long brow tine emerging directly from the burr. It was originally found in Yushe Basin in Shanxi Province, and reported later from Qaidam Basin in Qinghai Province. Huade is the third area yielding the species. E. triangularis distinguishes from E. blainvillei by its special main beam with triangular cross sections, and it was reported only from Yushe Basin. Its presence in Huade extended its geographic distribution northward to Nei Mongol. Euprox is a transitional form of cervids from permanent antlers to seasonally deciduous ones and it is found in several localities across Eurasia. Huade is the third area in Nei Mongol yielding the taxon after Tung Gur and Siziwang Qi (Siziwang Banner). C. huadeensis is a pliocervine with four tines, and particularly with two distal tines sword-like. It is found at Tuchengzi for the second time, but not elsewhere so far, and it seems to be an endemic taxon. C. shanxius distinguishes from C. novorossiae by absence of Palaeomeryx fold on lower molars. It is widely found in Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and Nei Mongol of northern China. It is often found with numerous specimens in a locality that indicates it lived in large herds. E. blainvillei, E. triangularis and C. shanxius are main members of Yushe I, i.e. Mahui Formation or Baodean. Euprox appeared also mainly in the Late Miocene. The geological age of Tuchengzi locality based on excavated cervids is therefore the Late Miocene. The numerous specimens of C. shanxius indicates forested environment in Huade area in that age. 继1959年中苏古生物联合考察队在内蒙古化德地区发掘采集到大量晚中新世哺乳动物化石后，笔者的课题组于2013~2016年间在化德的土城子地点发掘采集到不少哺乳动物化石。经过修理和研究，鉴定出鹿科化石的5个种类：布氏始柱角鹿(Eostyloceros blainvillei), 三角始柱角鹿(E. triangularis), 真角鹿未定种(Euprox sp.), 化德祖鹿(Cervavitus huadeensis)和山西祖鹿(C. shanxius)。其中前3个种类是在化德地区首次发现，而后两个种的牙齿材料也是在土城子地点首次记述。布氏始柱角鹿是一种较大的麂类，以其鹿角具一个粗长而内弯的主枝及一个直接从角环上伸出的较长的眉枝为特征，以前主要发现于山西的榆社盆地，在青海柴达木盆地也找到过，而化德是出现这个种类的第三个地区。三角始柱角鹿以其主枝横切面呈三角形而与布氏始柱角鹿相区别，以前仅见于榆社盆地，因此新发现的三角始柱角鹿将其地理分布范围扩大到内蒙古。真角鹿是从非脱换型鹿角向季节性脱换型鹿角过渡的代表，在欧亚大陆都有分布，化德是继通古尔和四子王旗之后在内蒙古发现这个属的第三个地区。化德祖鹿的鹿角具有4个枝，远端两个枝剑形，在土城子地点是第二次发现，但目前尚未在其他地区发现过，似乎是化德一带的地方种类。山西祖鹿以其下臼齿不具古鹿褶而与新罗斯祖鹿(Cervavitus novorossiae)相区别。山西祖鹿在中国北方的分布较广，主要见于山西、陕西、甘肃和内蒙古，而且在每个地点的化石标本较多，指示其种群密度较大。布氏始柱角鹿、三角始柱角鹿和山西祖鹿是榆社盆地中榆社I带的主要鹿科成员，出现在岩石地层的马会组或生物年代学的保德期。真角鹿的时代分布主要在晚中新世。因此根据土城子地点的鹿科化石判断其地质时代应为晚中新世，而较多的山西祖鹿标本指示化德一带在晚中新世有较广的森林。
摘要：All-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) is a large-scale electrochemical energy storage technology with numerous potential applications because of its inherent safety and long service life. In previous years, a novel mixed-acid electrolyte system, vanadium electrolytes with mixture of sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to increase vanadium solubility, which can effectively raise the electrolyte energy density from 25 Wh/L to 40 Wh/L. To further improve mixed-acid VRFBs, in present work, high purity mixed-acid electrolytes were prepared using a novel direct dissolution – electrochemical reduction process from high purity vanadium oxytrichloride (VOCl3). And the purity and electrochemical properties were investigated, comparing with common mixed-acid electrolytes and regular sulfate electrolytes prepared from metallurgical grade vanadium pentoxide. It was found that the novel process demonstrated a great potential for the low cost and high efficiency production of high purity electrolytes with excellent electrochemical properties for mixed-acid VRFBs. Comparing the traditional high purity electrolytes preparation process, the present novel method will dramatically cut the cost by more than 90 percent, which will considerably facilitate the commercial application of high performance and high density VRFBs.
摘要：A new skull of Urmiatherium intermedium (Bovidae, Artiodactyla) from the Linxia Basin, Gansu Province is described here. U. intermedium is a large Late Miocene bovid with an odd-looking horn apparatus, consisting of a pair of degenerate, closely situated horn-cores, and a large area of exostoses on the frontal and the parietal bones. Plenty of skulls, teeth, and bone fragments of U. intermedium have been reported from North China, but the skull to be described is the first discovery from the Linxia Basin, expanding the geographic distribution of U. intermedium to the northeast edge of the Tibetan Plateau. Although Urmiatherium is generally thought to be closely related to Plesiaddax, Hezhengia, Tsaidamotherium, and some other Late Miocene “ovibovines”, the phylogenetic position of Urmiatherium is still in debate. The distribution of Urmiatherium is wide, spanning from Iran to North China. Urmiatherium seldom accompanies with other Late Miocene “ovibovines” in North China, but is accompanied by other bovids like Sinotragus. 报道并描述了一件来自甘肃临夏盆地的中间乌米兽(Urmiatherium intermedium)头骨化石新材料，该材料产自柳树组上部，属于晚中新世晚期杨家山动物群。中间乌米兽是一种大型的晚中新世牛科动物，角心特化，短且呈薄板状，并且在基部相互靠近。在角心前后方的额骨和顶骨上，发育大片赘生骨疣，这些骨疣与角心一起，合称角器。20世纪初，步林报道了中国北方晚中新世地层中的大量中间乌米兽化石，包括产自山西保德和甘肃庆阳的二十多件头骨以及很多破碎的齿列和骨骼。本文报道的乌米兽头骨化石是乌米兽在甘肃临夏盆地的首次发现，将其在中国北方的分布向西扩展到了青藏高原东北缘地带。乌米兽被普遍认为与近旋角羊(Plesiaddax)、和政羊(Hezhengia)和柴达木兽(Tsaidamotherium)等晚中新世“麝牛类”牛科动物具有较近的亲缘关系，但其系统发育地位仍存有争议。相比其他晚中新世“麝牛类”牛科动物，乌米兽的分布较广，从伊朗至中国北方都有分布，但它鲜与其他晚中新世“麝牛类”牛科动物伴生。在临夏盆地，与其伴生的牛科动物目前仅发现中华羚(Sinotragus)一种。
摘要：The Guodikeng Formation encompasses the terrestrial Permo-Triassic transition sequence in China. This formation crops out in the Dalongkou section, Jimsar, Xinjiang where remains of the dicynodonts Jimusaria and Lystrosaurus were found. We are describing here a therocephalian and a chroniosuchian from the Dalongkou section, which are the first records of these groups for the Guodikeng Formation. Diagnostic characters of the new therocephalian, Dalongkoua fuae gen. and sp. nov., include maxillary ventral margin strongly concave in lateral view; incisors spatulated and rounded; incisors and canines with faint serrations; coronoid process of the dentary with a marked external adductor fossa; triangular reflected lamina of the angular with two smooth concavities. Chroniosuchians are represented by several postcranial elements and the vertebral morphology is similar to Bystrowiana and Bystrowiella. These remains are interpreted as representing a Bystrowianidae indeterminate. The new findings increase the diversity of the Guodikeng Formation that is now represented by three or four dicynodonts, one therocephalian and one chroniosuchian. All these groups survived the massive P-T extinction but disappear from the fossil record in the Middle to Upper Triassic. 锅底坑组是重要的二叠—三叠系过渡序列，本组在新疆吉木萨尔大龙口出露广泛，产出吉木萨尔兽以及水龙兽两类二齿兽类。本文报道了在大龙口剖面首次发现的兽头类和迟滞鳄类，这也是此二类群在锅底坑组的首次报道。新发现的兽头类被命名为付氏大龙口兽(Dalongkoua fuae)。其鉴定特征包括上颌骨犬后齿齿槽外边缘向背向凹入；切齿有圆形和匙形；切齿和犬齿有微弱的锯齿；齿骨冠状突有显著的收肌窝；反折翼近三角形，有两个平滑的凹陷。锅底坑组目前有3～4属二齿兽类、1属兽头类和1属迟滞鳄类，这一发现增加了其多样性。这些类群都在二叠纪末的大灭绝中幸存下来，直到中晚三叠世才消失。
摘要：Here we briefly review the history of research on the Laiyang dinosaur and dinosaur egg faunas, summarize the contributions of C. C. Young and other elder paleontologists to the discoveries of the Late Cretaceous dinosaurs and dinosaur eggs from Laiyang, and introduce the new discoveries and the advances in the research on the Laiyang faunas. The new investigations in Laiyang from 2008 have found a series of valley developed in plain and more than ten new dinosaur or dinosaur egg fossil beds. In 2010, we began the massive excavations at two localities in Jingangkou and collected abundant dinosaurs and other vertebrate fossils, such as a new saurolophine, some theropod material and a new taxon of turtle egg. The bone beds in Locality 2 with the typical sedimentary and burial patterns of mudflow, and these fossil deposits are interpreted as having been carried and deposited by mudflow. The re-observation and the CT scanning data of the crest of Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus (IVPP V 725) show that the crest is fractured and solid. However, based on the re-observations of its cranial and postcranial specimens, we consider that Tsintaosaurus spinorhinus is a valid taxon of lambeosaurines, which have the hollow crest. Therefore, the crest of Tsintaosaurus might not belong to the skull of this individual, and the true form of the crest needs to be confirmed in the future work. We reassess the three species of Tanius, and obtain several results. 1) Tanius sinensis and Tanius chingkankouensis are the valid species of Tanius; 2) Tanius laiyangensis is invalid.; 3) the sacrum and ilium of Tanius chingkankouensis with typical hadrosaurid features should not be referred to Tanius. 简要回顾了莱阳恐龙和恐龙蛋化石群的研究历史和以杨钟健为代表的老一代地质古生物学者对莱阳恐龙和恐龙蛋研究和发现的杰出贡献，并介绍了莱阳恐龙和恐龙蛋的最新发现和若干研究进展。在近年来对莱阳周边地层进行的大规模考察中，发现了一系列发育在平原上的恐龙峡谷群；以及其中蕴含的十几个恐龙和恐龙蛋新地点和新层位。2010年开始，在对莱阳金岗口村附近的2个化石地点的发掘中，发现了以鸭嘴龙科为主的大量脊椎动物化石和蛋化石，包括一类新的栉龙亚科成员，一些大型兽脚类恐龙化石，以及一新的龟鳖类蛋化石等。2号地点化石富集层具有典型的泥石流沉积特征和骨骼埋藏特征。对棘鼻青岛龙的特殊头饰进行了CT扫描和三维重建，发现其头饰是实心结构，但其他骨骼特征证明棘鼻青岛龙属于具有头饰的赖氏龙亚科是确定无疑的，所以目前发现的头饰应不是其真实状态或根本不属于其头部骨骼。此外，对谭氏龙1属3种的重新观察研究得出以下结论：中国谭氏龙和金刚口谭氏龙应是有效属种，但部分骨骼还有疑问，还需要进一步研究，而莱阳谭氏龙为无效属种。
摘要：The tetrapod assemblage from the Middle Triassic upper part of the Ermaying Formation of northern China has been known for two decades as the Sinokannemeyeria-Shansisuchus Assemblage because of the characteristic presence of the dicynodont therapsid Sinokannemeyeria and the erythrosuchid archosauriform Shansisuchus. Recently a Sinokannemeyeria species has been described from Member I of the Tongchuan Formation, which overlies the Ermaying, near Baidaoyu, Linxian, Shanxi Province. Here we document archosauriform specimens from the Baidaoyu site, including a partial Shansisuchus skeleton and some additional bones from probable suchian archosaurs, which constitute the first archosauriform material known from Member I of the Tongchuan. The most intriguing archosauriform specimens are a large ilium probably attributable to an unusual poposauroid, and a small, strangely shaped element that appears to represent a highly autapomorphic suchian calcaneum. Given the presence of both Sinokannemeyeria and Shansisuchus at Baidaoyu, the stratigraphic range of the Sinokannemeyeria-Shansisuchus Assemblage can be considered to extend upward into the Tongchuan Formation, although with possible changes in faunal composition. The occurrence of a poposauroid ilium at the Baidaoyu locality adds to the evidence that poposauroids diversified extensively during the Middle Triassic. 近几十年，华北的二马营组上部地层以产出中国肯氏兽–山西鳄四足动物化石组合而闻名。最近在山西临县白道峪于上覆的铜川组一段发现了中国肯氏兽。本文描述了同一地点同一层位产出的主龙型类化石，包括一具山西鳄的部分骨架以及一些可以归入suchian的主龙类。它们是铜川组一段首次记述的主龙型类。最有鉴定特征的suchian材料包括一个大的髂骨以及一个小的、形状很奇特的、可能是跟骨的骨骼。髂骨可能可以归入一个奇异的波波龙类（poposauroid）。因为中国肯氏兽与山西鳄同时出现在白道峪，表明中国肯氏兽–山西鳄组合可以向上延伸到铜川组一段。髂骨与跟骨大小悬殊，可能代表两个从未在中国肯氏兽–山西鳄组合报道过的物种。白道峪发现了特化的波波龙类，支持了波波龙类在中三叠世大量分化的观点。