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  • Diversity of soil bacteria and fungi communities in artificial forests of the sandy-hilly region of Northwest China

    分类: 农、林、牧、渔 >> 土壤学 提交时间: 2023-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:Soil erosion is a serious issue in the sandy-hilly region of Shanxi Province, Northwest China. There has been gradual improvement due to vegetation restoration, but soil microbial community characteristics in different vegetation plantation types have not been widely investigated. To address this, we analyzed soil bacterial and fungal community structures, diversity, and microbial and soil environmental factors in Caragana korshinskii Kom., Populus tomentosa Carr., Populus simonii Carr., Salix matsudana Koidz, and Pinus tabulaeformis Carr. forests. There were no significant differences in the dominant bacterial community compositions among the five forest types. The alpha diversity of the bacteria and fungi communities showed that ACE (abundance-based coverage estimator), Chao1, and Shannon indices in C. korshinskii forest were significantly higher than those in the other four forest types (P<0.05). Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and urease had a greater impact on bacterial community composition, while total nitrogen, β-glucosidase, and urease had a greater impact on fungal community composition. The relative abundance of beneficial and pathogenic microorganisms was similar across all forest types. Based on microbial community composition, diversity, and soil fertility, we ranked the plantations from most to least suitable as follows: C. korshinskii, S. matsudana, P. tabulaeformis, P. tomentosa, and P. simonii.

  • Quantitative distinction of the relative actions of climate change and human activities on vegetation evolution in the Yellow River Basin of China during 1981–2019

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:

    Under the combined influence of climate change and human activities, vegetation ecosystem has undergone profound changes. It can be seen that there are obvious differences in the evolution patterns and driving mechanisms of vegetation ecosystem in different historical periods. Therefore, it is urgent to identify and reveal the dominant factors and their contribution rates in the vegetation change cycle. Based on the data of climate elements (sunshine hours, precipitation and temperature), human activities (population intensity and GDP intensity) and other natural factors (altitude, slope and aspect), this study explored the spatial and temporal evolution patterns of vegetation NDVI in the Yellow River Basin of China from 1989 to 2019 through a residual method, a trend analysis, and a gravity center model, and quantitatively distinguished the relative actions of climate change and human activities on vegetation evolution based on Geodetector model. The results showed that the spatial distribution of vegetation NDVI in the Yellow River Basin showed a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest. During 1981–2019, the temporal variation of vegetation NDVI showed an overall increasing trend. The gravity centers of average vegetation NDVI during the study period was distributed in Zhenyuan County, Gansu Province, and the center moved northeastwards from 1981 to 2019. During 1981–2000 and 2001–2019, the proportion of vegetation restoration areas promoted by the combined action of climate change and human activities was the largest. During the study period (1981–2019), the dominant factors influencing vegetation NDVI shifted from natural factors to human activities. These results could provide decision support for the protection and restoration of vegetation ecosystem in the Yellow River Basin.

  • Effects of water stress on growth phenology photosynthesis and leaf water potential in Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter in North Africa

    分类: 生物学 >> 生态学 提交时间: 2023-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:Stipagrostis ciliata (Desf.) De Winter is a pastoral C4 grass grown in arid regions. This research work focused on assessing the growth of S. ciliata accessions derived from two different climate regions (a wet arid region in the Bou Hedma National Park in the central and southern part of Tunisia (coded as WA), and a dry arid region from the Matmata Mountain in the south of Tunisia (coded as DA)) under water stress conditions. Specifically, the study aimed to investigate the phenological and physiological responses of potted S. ciliata seedlings under different water treatments: T1 (200 mm/a), T2 (150 mm/a), T3 (100 mm/a) and T4 (50 mm/a). Growth phenology, net photosynthesis (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water potential (Ψmd), predawn leaf water potential (Ψpd), soil water content (SWC) and soil water potential (Ψs) were observed during the water stress cycle (from December 2016 to November 2017). The obtained results showed that the highest growth potential of the two accessions (WA and DA) was recorded under treatment T1. The two accessions responded differently and significantly to water stress. Photosynthetic parameters, such as Pn and gs, decreased sharply under treatments T2, T3 and T4 compared to treatment T1. The higher water stress increased the R/S ratio (the ratio of root dry biomass to shoot dry biomass), with values of 1.29 and 2.74 under treatment T4 for accessions WA and DA, respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied, and the separation of S. ciliata accessions on the first two axes of PCA (PC1 and PC2) suggested that accession DA was detected in the negative extremity of PC1 and PC2 under treatments T1 and T2. This accession was characterized by a high number of spikes. For treatments T3 and T4, both accessions were detected in the negative extremity of PC1 and PC2. They were characterized by a high root dry biomass. Therefore, S. ciliata accessions responded to water stress by displaying significant changes in their behaviours. Accession WA from the Bou Hedma National Park (wet arid region) showed higher drought tolerance than accession DA from the Matmata Mountain (dry arid region). S. ciliata exhibits a significant adaptation capacity for water limitation and may be an important species for ecosystem restoration.

  • Biocrust-induced partitioning of soil water between grass and shrub in a desert steppe of Northwest China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:Maintaining the stability of exotic sand-binding shrub has become a large challenge in arid and semi-arid grassland ecosystems in northern China. We investigated two kinds of shrublands with different BSCs (biological soil crusts) cover in desert steppe in Northwest China to characterize the water sources of shrub (Caragana intermedia Kuang et H. C. Fu) and grass (Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit.) by stable 18O isotopic. Our results showed that both shrublands were subject to persistent soil water deficiency from 2012 to 2017, the minimum soil depth with CV (coefficient of variation) <15% and SWC (soil water content) <6% was 1.4 m in shrubland with open areas lacking obvious BSC cover, and 0.8 m in shrubland covered by mature BSCs. For C. intermedia, a considerable proportion of water sources pointed to the surface soil. Water from BSCs contributed to averages 22.9% and 17.6% of the total for C. intermedia and A. scoparia, respectively. C. intermedia might use more water from BSCs in rainy season than dry season, in contrast to A. scoparia. The relationship between shrub (or grass) and soil water by δ18O shown significant differences in months, which partly verified the potential trends and relations covered by the high variability of the water source at seasonal scale. More fine roots at 0–5 cm soil layer could be found in the surface soil layer covered by BSCs (8000 cm/m3) than without BSCs (3200 cm/m3), which ensured the possibility of using the surface soil water by C. intermedia. The result implies that even under serious soil water deficiency, C. intermedia can use the surface soil water, leading to the coexistence between C. intermedia and A. scoparia. Different with the result from BSCs in desert areas, the natural withdrawal of artificial C. intermedia from desert steppe will be a long-term process, and the highly competitive relationship between shrubs and grasses also determines that its habitat will be maintained in serious drought state for a long time.

  • Effect of sand-fixing vegetation on the hydrological regulation function of sand dunes and its practical significance

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:Soil water content is a key controlling factor for vegetation restoration in sand dunes. The deep seepage and lateral migration of water in dunes affect the recharge process of deep soil water and groundwater in sand dune ecosystems. To determine the influence of vegetation on the hydrological regulation function of sand dunes, we examined the deep seepage and lateral migration of dune water with different vegetation coverages during the growing season in the Horqin Sandy Land, China. The results showed that the deep seepage and lateral migration of water decreased with the increase in vegetation coverage on the dunes. The accumulated deep seepage water of mobile dunes (vegetation coverage<5%) and dunes with vegetation coverage of 18.03%, 27.12%, and 50.65% accounted for 56.53%, 51.82%, 18.98%, and 0.26%, respectively, of the rainfall in the same period. The accumulated lateral migration of water in these dunes accounted for 12.39%, 6.33%, 2.23%, and 7.61% of the rainfall in the same period. The direction and position of the dune slope affected the soil water deep seepage and lateral migration process. The amounts of deep seepage and lateral migration of water on the windward slope were lower than those on the leeward slope. The amounts of deep seepage and lateral migration of water showed a decreasing trend from the bottom to the middle and to the top of the dune slope. According to the above results, during the construction of sand-control projects in sandy regions, we suggest that a certain area of mobile dunes (>13.75%) should be retained as a water resource reservoir to maintain the water balance of artificial fixed dune ecosystems. These findings provide reliable evidence for the accurate assessment of water resources within the sand dune ecosystem and guide the construction of desertification control projects.

  • Check dam extraction from remote sensing images using deep learning and geospatial analysis: A case study in the Yanhe River Basin of the Loess Plateau, China

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:

    Check dams are widely used on the Loess Plateau in China to control soil and water losses, develop agricultural land, and improve watershed ecology. Detailed information on the number and spatial distribution of check dams is critical for quantitatively evaluating hydrological and ecological effects and planning the construction of new dams. Thus, this study developed a check dam detection framework for broad areas from high-resolution remote sensing images using an ensemble approach of deep learning and geospatial analysis. First, we made a sample dataset of check dams using GaoFen-2 (GF-2) and Google Earth images. Next, we evaluated five popular deep-learning-based object detectors, including Faster R-CNN, You Only Look Once (version 3) (YOLOv3), Cascade R-CNN, YOLOX, and VarifocalNet (VFNet), to identify the best one for check dam detection. Finally, we analyzed the location characteristics of the check dams and used geographical constraints to optimize the detection results. Precision, recall, average precision at intersection over union (IoU) threshold of 0.50 (AP50), IoU threshold of 0.75 (AP75), and average value for 10 IoU thresholds ranging from 0.50–0.95 with a 0.05 step (AP50–95), and inference time were used to evaluate model performance. All the five deep learning networks could identify check dams quickly and accurately, with AP50–95, AP50, and AP75 values higher than 60.0%, 90.0%, and 70.0%, respectively, except for YOLOv3. The VFNet had the best performance, followed by YOLOX. The proposed framework was tested in the Yanhe River Basin and yielded promising results, with a recall rate of 87.0% for 521 check dams. Furthermore, the geographic analysis deleted about 50% of the false detection boxes, increasing the identification accuracy of check dams from 78.6% to 87.6%. Simultaneously, this framework recognized 568 recently constructed check dams and small check dams not recorded in the known check dam survey datasets. The extraction results will support efficient watershed management and guide future studies on soil erosion in the Loess Plateau.

  • Spatiotemporal evolution and prediction of habitat quality in Hohhot City of China based on the InVEST and CA-Markov models

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-07 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:With the acceleration of urbanization, changes in the urban ecological environment and landscape pattern have led to a series of prominent ecological environmental problems. In order to better coordinate the balanced relationship between city and ecological environment, we selected land use change data to evaluate the habitat quality in Hohhot City of China, which is of great practical significance for regional urban and economic development. Thus, the integrated valuation of ecosystem services and tradeoffs (InVEST) and Cellular Automata-Markov (CA-Markov) models were used to analyze, predict, and explore the Spatiotemporal evolution path and characteristics of urban land use, and forecast the typical evolution pattern of land use in 2030. The results showed that the land use types in Hohhot City changed significantly from 2000 to 2020, and the biggest change took place in cultivated land, grassland, shrub, and artificial surface. The decrease of cultivated land area and the increase of artificial surface area were the main impact trend of land use change. The average value of habitat quality had been decreasing continuously from 2000 to 2020, and the values of habitat degradation were 0.2605, 0.2494, and 0.2934 in 2000, 2010, and 2020, respectively, showing a decreasing trend. The decrease of habitat quality was caused by the needs of economic development and urban construction, as well as the impact of land occupation. During this evolution, many cultivated land and urban grassland had been converted into construction land. The simulated land use changes in 2030 are basically the same as those during 2000–2020, and the habitat quality will still be declining. The regional changes are influenced by the urban rapid development and industrial layout. These results can provide decision-making reference for regional urban planning and management as well as habitat quality evaluation.

  • 中药灌肠联合健身八段锦在一例慢性肾功能不全患者的护理体会

    分类: 护理学 >> 护理学 提交时间: 2023-02-06

    摘要:

    本文总结中药灌肠联合健身八段锦治疗1例慢性肾功能不全患者的护理经验,主要包括评估患者、提出护理问题、常规护理、中医特殊护理与治疗等,通过中西医结合治疗与护理方法,提高了患者治疗效果,改善了患者便秘、乏力症状等症状。

  • 1例腹膜透析患者重度水肿合并心力衰竭的护理报告

    分类: 医学、药学 >> 临床医学 提交时间: 2023-02-06

    摘要:

    总结1例腹膜透析患者重度水肿合并心力衰竭的护理经验。护理重点:通过利尿、调整腹膜透析治疗方案、三日饮食日记、个性化饮食方案、建立患者专属微信群、腹膜透析相关理论知识与操作的培训,联合中药灌肠、中药超声透药、五行音乐与耳穴贴压等中医护理特色技术,使患者水肿与心衰情况得到明显改善。

  • The matter’s inertia and interaction in an isolated system

    分类: 物理学 >> 电磁学、光学、声学、传热、经典力学和流体动力学 提交时间: 2023-02-06

    摘要:

    对密度不变的孤立系统中物质的内在惯性和相互作用的研究结果表明,自旋是可证明的物质惯性之一,可以孤立系统的角速度wn=dtn=∇×u 表征。考虑并补充了物质点所占空间为无限趋近于零但不为零的体积后,本研究的结论行证据可补充牛顿第一定律,并可以值解释物质波粒二象性。对含两个耦合物质的基本的孤立系统进行了进一步的研究。所揭示的耦合特性可以解释DNA结构、时光锥及运动轨迹的拓扑球面。两物质间的相互作用被证明为孤立系统的匀速直线运动与匀教室自旋的耦合结果,这也许对统一万有引力和电磁力有所帮助。

  • Spatiotemporal characteristics and influencing factors of ecosystem services in Central Asia

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-06 合作期刊: 《干旱区科学》

    摘要:Land use/land cover (LULC) change and climate change are two major factors affecting the provision of ecosystem services which are closely related to human well-being. However, a clear understanding of the relationships between these two factors and ecosystem services in Central Asia is still lacking. This study aimed to comprehensively assess ecosystem services in Central Asia and analyze how they are impacted by changes in LULC and climate. The spatiotemporal patterns of three ecosystem services during the period of 2000–2015, namely the net primary productivity (NPP), water yield, and soil retention, were quantified and mapped by the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) model, Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) model, and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Scenarios were used to determine the relative importance and combined effect of LULC change and climate change on ecosystem services. Then, the relationships between climate factors (precipitation and temperature) and ecosystem services, as well as between LULC change and ecosystem services, were further discussed. The results showed that the high values of ecosystem services appeared in the southeast of Central Asia. Among the six biomes (alpine forest region (AFR), alpine meadow region (AMR), typical steppe region (TSR), desert steppe region (DSR), desert region (DR), and lake region (LR)), the values of ecosystem services followed the order of AFR>AMR>TSR>DSR> DR>LR. In addition, the values of ecosystem services fluctuated during the period of 2000–2015, with the most significant decreases observed in the southeast mountainous area and northwest of Central Asia. LULC change had a greater impact on the NPP, while climate change had a stronger influence on the water yield and soil retention. The combined LULC change and climate change exhibited a significant synergistic effect on ecosystem services in most of Central Asia. Moreover, ecosystem services were more strongly and positively correlated with precipitation than with temperature. The greening of desert areas and forest land expansion could improve ecosystem services, but unreasonable development of cropland and urbanization have had an adverse impact on ecosystem services. According to the results, ecological stability in Central Asia can be achieved through the natural vegetation protection, reasonable urbanization, and ecological agriculture development.

  • 音节的本质和元辅音性质新说

    分类: 语言学及应用语言学 >> 语言学及应用语言学 提交时间: 2023-02-04

    摘要:人们长期把音节作为一级语音单位,却不知是个假象;元音和辅音一直是语音学最坚实的单位,却不知实际是字母的冒名假借。文章分析了音节没有语言学地位的原因,学界的困惑与探秘尝试,并从历时角度剖析音节与字母的形成关系,从共时角度揭示出发音时间结构对音节本质的规定。在此基础上,本文以颠覆式的思路再定义音节,重塑元辅音的真实地位和价值。在这个意义上,旧的语音学湮灭了,新的语音学可否脱胎换骨、重整旗鼓、再塑金身,未来或可待。文章最后提出一套音节分析的简要方案和原则。

  • 折扣还是权衡:混合得失双结果跨期决策的理论探索

    分类: 心理学 >> 管理心理学 分类: 心理学 >> 认知心理学 提交时间: 2023-02-04

    摘要:个人、企业乃至国家在实际生活中需要做出涉及不同时间节点的决策,此类决策在行为决策领域一般以“跨期偏好”作为衡量指标。而人类社会发展所必须做出的、攸关生存发展的重要跨期决策实则是混合得失双结果的跨期决策。然而,现有基于纯获得范式未能帮助我们理解和预测现实中更加复杂、真实的混合得失双结果跨期决策问题。为了描述并解释人们的混合得失双结果跨期偏好,本项目拟:1)通过不同逻辑合成混合得失双结果跨期决策的折扣率,为模型比较提供尚缺乏的预测指标;2)开发生态版的混合得失双结果跨期偏好任务,为后续研究的开展提供更加生态、有预测力的测量范式;3)采用静态的直观模拟天平任务和动态的鼠标实验室、眼动追踪技术相结合的手段,检验效用比较模型与属性比较模型何种可以更满意地解释混合得失双结果的跨期决策。

  • 中国人的积极理想情绪:近几十年来的变迁

    分类: 心理学 >> 社会心理学 提交时间: 2023-02-03

    摘要:

    理想情绪是人们理想中想体验的情绪,和文化密切相关。在当今社会快速变迁的背景下,已有大量研究探讨了人们日常体验的实际情绪的变迁,但是尚未有研究关注理想情绪的变迁。本研究第一次在中国对积极理想情绪的变迁进行研究。研究一让1966年之前出生的被试根据自己的判断,评估1980年初、2000年初和2020年前后中国人理想中想体验的积极情绪。结果发现,从1980年初到2020年前后中国人对高唤醒积极情绪、低唤醒积极情绪、一般积极情绪的偏好都在上升。研究二让大学生被试根据自己的判断,评估祖辈、子辈和孙辈理想中想体验的积极情绪。结果表明,大学生知觉到的祖辈、子辈和孙辈这三代人对高唤醒积极情绪、低唤醒积极情绪、一般积极情绪的偏好也都在上升。研究三利用全国性大学生调查数据,通过横断对比分析发现,来自城市的大学生比来自农村的大学生更偏好高唤醒积极情绪、低唤醒积极情绪、一般积极情绪,并且个体主义和集体主义价值观都可以正向预测三类情绪的偏好。总起来,三个研究一致启示,近几十年来,中国人对高唤醒积极情绪、低唤醒积极情绪和一般积极情绪的偏好都在上升。这些发现不仅拓展了对社会变迁的心理影响的认识,更加深了对理想情绪本身特性的认识。

  • 内蒙古草地资源的生态足迹及其可持续利用分析

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-02 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:可持续性可通过区域生态足迹水平进行衡量。采用净初级生产力构建了内蒙古各盟(市)草地资源的均衡因子和产量因子。以每5 a为一期,测算了内蒙古草地1990—2020年的生态足迹,并结合人口分布数据刻画了生态足迹的空间分布状况;在此基础上应用土地可持续模型评价了内蒙古草地资源的可持续性。结果表明:(1)内蒙古各盟(市)草地的产量因子差异较大,整体呈东高西低的特点。(2)生态承载力在空间上也呈东高西低特点,30 a人均生态承载力整体呈小幅度下降趋势。(3)人均生态足迹逐期上升,2000—2005年由生态盈余转变为生态赤字。生态足迹较高的区域集中在通辽市、锡林浩特市、二连浩特市、乌兰察布市南部和鄂尔多斯市东部地区。(4)内蒙古草地资源可持续性逐期下降,由1990年的中度可持续性退化为2020年的弱不可持续性。可持续性退化严重的区域集中在呼和浩特市、包头市和乌海市。研究结果旨在为内蒙古草地资源的可持续利用提供可靠的理论基础。

  • 新疆区域经济联系网络时空格局演变

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-02 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:以新疆15个地州市为研究对象,运用区域流强度模型和引力模型,分析2010—2019年新疆辐射能力以及区域间的经济联系,采用社会网络分析方法探究经济联系网络结构演变特征,为优化新疆区域经济网络结构和区域经济一体化发展提出建议。结果表明:(1)区域流强度整体表现为北高南低的发展格局,10 a间平均提升率达60%,以乌鲁木齐市和喀什地区为首区域流强度相关指标增长最为显著,但中心区域的辐射带动能力总体较弱。(2)2019年新疆弱经济联系数量占比降
    至48.57%,低等级经济联系格局显著,逐步形成以乌鲁木齐市为中心、克拉玛依市和石河子市为次中心的放射状空间联系格局,10 a间经济联系整体略有增长,过程中虹吸效应远大于涓滴效应。(3)网络中心势2019年达63.61%,整体中心性水平以极化效应为主,区域经济发展不均衡,凝聚子群内部成员不断发生变化,空间分割现象显著。新疆整体经济联系时空网络格局“核心-边缘”现象显著,呈现出“东北强、西南弱”的空间分布格局。

  • 新疆非物质文化遗产分布特征及旅游活化机制研究

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-02 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:以新疆非物质文化遗产资源为研究对象,基于实地调研与文献史料,系统分析了新疆非遗旅游活化发展现状、模式及存在的问题,并运用GIS空间分析技术探索新疆非遗的空间分布特征,借助SPSS软件探析了非遗与旅游发展之间的相关关系,进而归纳了非遗旅游活化发展的机制与模式。结果表明:(1)新疆非遗资源类型结构、数量分布具有较为显著的差异化特征。新疆非遗旅游活化发展态势良好,且活化模式逐渐多元化。(2)国家级非遗与自治区级非遗在省域空间层面以极核区、高度密集区、次级密集区和面状区域为主要分布特征,呈现出不均衡的集聚特征格局。(3)不同地区的非遗资源丰裕度对旅游业发展有显著的正向影响,非遗资源密集地区的旅游业发展水平相对较好,而非遗资源稀缺地区的旅游发展相对缓慢。依据上述分析结果,提出新疆非遗旅游活化发展机制,以旅游为载体对文化遗产进行活化,推动非遗与旅游的良性互动发展。

  • 新疆城市规模分布与自然地理相关性分析

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-02 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:如何实现人口、城市规模和自然地理系统的协调及可持续发展,是城市化中人地关系面临的难题。以新疆91个县域单元为研究对象,基于研究区全域、六大地貌类型和七大水系分区3个空间维度,运用位序-规模法和人口Lorenz曲线法,对城市规模体系和人口分布格局量化分析,探究了新疆城市规模分布与地貌、水系空间分布的相关性。结果表明:(1)地貌类型区系统规模分布相关系数为0.897,水系分区系统规模分布相关系数为0.951,表明城镇规模格局与水系地理因子关系更紧密。(2)准噶尔盆地与天山北麓诸河区是2个突出的人口分布聚集单元,同时是地理类型高度叠加区,呈现出城市规模与自然地理结合的空间极化区。(3)新疆各自然地理单元城市人口分布的异质性表现突出,地貌类型单元内人口集疏格局鲜明,水系分区单元内人口分布相对均衡,其中天山北麓诸河区人口集聚程度较高。总体来看,新疆城市人口规模区域差异特征显著,城市规模等级结构存在断层现象,城市体系发育不成熟,建议加强中等城市规模的发展,完善新疆全域的城市格局。

  • 中国资源型城市生态系统服务价值评价 ——基于Meta模型视角

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-02 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:资源型城市是基础能源和重要原材料的供应地,但由于资源衰减和缺乏统筹规划等原因,
    这些城市面临经济结构失衡、生态环境破坏严重等较大压力。因此,将资源型城市自然环境经济价值进行成本效益分析,对于改善资源型城市的人居环境,解决生态环境问题具有一定的指导意义。应用Meta模型,以城市居民户均支付意愿为视角,对资源型城市生态系统服务价值进行评价,并运用价值转移函数对公园价值进行评估。结果表明:(1)以生态系统服务特征变量得到的价值较高,对资源型城市生态系统服务具有显著影响。(2)除森林外,其他自然类型特征变量的环境资源得到的生态系统服务价值较低。(3)城市居民收入越高支付能力越强,在支付工具的选择上,人们更倾向于利用捐款和入门费的方式进行支付。(4)公园生态系统服务价值在1790.26×104~31016.00×104元,并且按照东部、中部、西部次序排列。根据研究结论,提出进一步增加资源型城市的森林面积,强化生态效益产出,提升生态系统服务功能,提高居民可支配收入,增加捐赠和入门费等自愿性支付工具使用,以此不断提高城市生态系统服务价值。

  • 基于不同尺度的中国运动健身场所空间差异及 影响因素研究

    分类: 地球科学 >> 地理学 提交时间: 2023-02-02 合作期刊: 《干旱区地理》

    摘要:运动健身场所是开展全民健身运动的重要推手,探明运动健身场所的区域差异及影响因素对推动运动健身场所的建设、推进“健康中国”战略有重要作用。从省级、城市群以及地级市3个尺度出发,运用总体分异测度指数(Global differentiation index,GDI)、Moran’s I 指数、热点分析探讨运动健身场所的空间差异,采用Pearson相关系数、灰色关联度以及地理探测器等方法分析运动健身场所分布的影响因素。结果表明:(1)运动健身场所数量与每万人拥有运动健身场所数量主要集中分布于东部地区,而西部地区除成都、重庆外,其余省区均分布较少。(2)运动健身场所数量与每万人拥有运动健身场所数量的GDI随着尺度的缩小而扩大,城市群尺度中,优化提升类差异最大,而发展壮大类差异最小。(3)经济总量和人口数量是运动健身场所集中的重要驱动因素,人口数量与城镇人口占比的交互作用最强。在城市群尺度上,受教育程度和城市规模大小是运动场所的重要影响因素。而在地级市尺度上,建成区面积占辖区面积比重对运动健身场所的影响更为显著。