摘要：A fully digital data acquisition system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) was developed for a CsI(Tl) array at the External Target Facility (ETF)in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL). To process the CsI(Tl) signals generated by γ-rays and light-charged ions, a scheme for digital pulse processing algorithms is proposed. Every step in the algorithms was benchmarked using standard γ and α sources. The scheme, which included a moving average filter, baseline restoration, leading-edge discrimination, moving window deconvolution and digital charge comparison was subsequently implemented on the FPGA. A good energy resolution of 5.7% for 1.33 MeV γ rays and excellent α-γ identification using the digital charge comparison method were achieved, which satisfies CsI(Tl) array performance requirements.
摘要：Intensity-modulated particle therapy (IMPT) with carbon ions is comparatively susceptible to various uncertainties caused by breathing motion, including range, setup, and target positioning uncertainties. To determine relative biological effectiveness-weighted dose (RWD) distributions that are resilient to these uncertainties, the reference phase-based four-dimensional (4D) robust optimization (RP-4DRO) and each phase-based 4D robust optimization (EP-4DRO) method in carbon-ion IMPT treatment planning were evaluated and compared. Based on RWD distributions, 4DRO methods were compared with 4D conventional optimization using planning target volume (PTV) margins (PTV-based optimization) to assess the effectiveness of the robust optimization methods. Carbon-ion IMPT treatment planning was conducted in a cohort of five lung cancer patients. The results indicated that the EP-4DRO method provided better robustness (P=0.080) and improved plan quality (P=0.225) for the clinical target volume (CTV) in the individual respiratory phase when compared with the PTV-based optimization. Compared with the PTV-based optimization, the RP-4DRO method ensured the robustness (P = 0.022) of the dose distributions in the reference breathing phase, albeit with a slight sacrifice of the target coverage (P=0.450). Both 4DRO methods successfully maintained the doses delivered to the organs at risk (OARs) below tolerable levels, which were lower than the doses in the PTV-based optimization (P<0.05). Furthermore, the RP-4DRO method exhibited significantly superior performance when compared with the EP-4DRO method in enhancing overall OAR sparing in either the individual respiratory phase or reference respiratory phase (P<0.05). In general, both 4DRO methods outperformed the PTV-based optimization in terms of OAR sparing and robustness.
摘要：The purpose of this study was to design a rapid cycling synchrotron, making it capable of proton beam ultra-high dose rate irradiation, inspired by laser accelerators. The design had to be cheap and simple. We consider our design from six aspects: the lattice, injection, extraction, space charge effects, eddy current effects and energy switching. Efficiency and particle quantity must be addressed when injected. The space charge effects at the injection could affect particles’ number. The eddy current effects in the vacuum chambers would affect the magnetic field itself and generate heat, all of which need to be taken into account. Fast extraction can obtain 1010 protons/pulse, equal to instantaneous dose rate up to 107 Gy/s in a very short time, while changing various extraction energies rapidly and easily to various deposition depths. In the further research we expect to combine a delivery system with this accelerator to realize the FLASH irradiation.
摘要：Livestock grazing is the most extensive land use in global drylands and one of the most extensive stressors of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). Despite widespread concern about the importance of biocrusts for global carbon (C) cycling, little is known about whether and how long-term grazing alters soil organic carbon (SOC) stability and stock in the biocrust layer. To assess the responses of SOC stability and stock in the biocrust layer to grazing, from June to September 2020, we carried out a large scale field survey in the restored grasslands under long-term grazing with different grazing intensities (represented by the number of goat dung per square meter) and in the grasslands strictly excluded from grazing in four regions (Dingbian County, Shenmu City, Guyuan City and Ansai District) along precipitation gradient in the hilly Loess Plateau, China. In total, 51 representative grassland sites were identified as the study sampling sites in this study, including 11 sites in Guyuan City, 16 sites in Dingbian County, 15 sites in Shenmu City and 9 sites in Ansai District. Combined with extensive laboratory analysis and statistical analysis, at each sampling site, we obtained data on biocrust attributes (cover, community structure, biomass and thickness), soil physical-chemical properties (soil porosity and soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio)), and environmental factors (mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, altitude, plant cover, litter cover, soil particle-size distribution (the ratio of soil clay and silt content to sand content)), SOC stability index (SI) and SOC stock (SOCS) in the biocrust layer, to conduct this study. Our results revealed that grazing did not change total biocrust cover but markedly altered biocrust community structure by reducing plant cover, with a considerable increase in the relative cover of cyanobacteria (23.1%) while a decrease in the relative cover of mosses (42.2%). Soil porosity and soil C/N ratio in the biocrust layer under grazing decreased significantly by 4.1%–7.2% and 7.2%–13.3%, respectively, compared with those under grazing exclusion. The shifted biocrust community structure ultimately resulted in an average reduction of 15.5% in SOCS in the biocrust layer under grazing. However, compared with higher grazing (intensity of more than 10.00 goat dung/m2), light grazing (intensity of 0.00–10.00 goat dung/m2 or approximately 1.20–2.60 goat/(hm2•a)) had no adverse effect on SOCS. SOC stability in the biocrust layer remained unchanged under long-term grazing due to the offset between the positive effect of the decreased soil porosity and the negative effect of the decreased soil C/N ratio on the SOC resistance to decomposition. Mean annual precipitation and soil particle-size distribution also regulated SOC stability indirectly by influencing soil porosity through plant cover and biocrust community structure. These findings suggest that proper grazing might not increase the CO2 release potential or adversely affect SOCS in the biocrust layer. This research provides some guidance for proper grazing management in the sustainable utilization of grassland resources and C sequestration in biocrusts in the hilly regions of drylands.
摘要：A deep learning-based automated Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror alignment method is proposed for synchrotron radiation. We trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) on simulated and experimental imaging data of a focusing system. Instead of learning directly from bypass images, we use a scatterer for X-ray modulation and speckle generation for image feature enhancement. The smallest normalized root mean square error on the validation set was 4%. Compared with conventional alignment methods based on motor scanning and analyzer setups, the present method simplified the optical layout and estimated alignment errors using a single-exposure experiment. Single-shot misalignment error estimation only took 0.13 s, significantly outperforming conventional methods. We also demonstrated the effects of the beam quality and pretraining using experimental data. The proposed method exhibited strong robustness, can handle high-precision focusing systems with complex or dynamic wavefront errors, and provides an important basis for intelligent control of future synchrotron radiation beamlines.
摘要：Proton computed tomography (CT) has a distinct practical significance in clinical applications. It eliminates 3–5% errors caused by the transformation of Hounsfield unit (HU) to relative stopping power (RSP) values when using X-ray CT for positioning and treatment planning systems (TPSs). Following the development of FLASH proton therapy, there are increased requirements for accurate and rapid positioning in TPSs. Thus, a new rapid proton CT imaging mode is proposed based on sparsely sampled projections. The proton beam was boosted to 350 MeV by a compact proton linear accelerator (linac). In this study, the comparisons of the proton scattering with the energy of 350 MeV and 230 MeV are conducted based on GEANT4 simulations. As the sparsely sampled information associated with beam acquisitions at 12 angles is not enough for reconstruction, X-ray CT is used as a prior image. The RSP map generated by converting the X-ray CT was constructed based on Monte Carlo simulations. Considering the estimation of the most likely path (MLP), the prior image-constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm is used to reconstruct images from two different phantoms using sparse proton projections of 350 MeV parallel proton beam. The results show that it is feasible to realize the proton image reconstruction with the rapid proton CT imaging proposed in this paper. It can produce RSP maps with much higher accuracy for TPSs and fast positioning to achieve ultra-fast imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in clinical proton therapy applications.
摘要：Co-phase and co-focus detection is one of the key technologies for large-aperture segmented mirror telescopes. In this paper, a new edge sensor based on fringes of equal thickness is developed, which can detect each segment's relative piston, tilt, and tip errors from the interferograms. Based on the co-focus demand for many ground-based seeing limited segmented mirror telescopes, an edge sensor prototype based on such a principle is built and applied in the indoor segmented mirror experiment system in the lab. According to the co-focus requirement of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, many simulations and experiments are carried out for co-focus error detection of the segmented mirror system. Experiment results show that the co-focus accuracy is better than 0."02 rms, which can meet the co-focus requirements of most large or extremely large segmented mirror astronomical telescopes.
摘要：The ion motions in a Penning trap have been studied in detail in the presence of azimuthal dipolar and quadrupolar radio-frequency excitations and buffer gas cooling. The numerical solutions by using the Runge-Kutta method and thus the pictures of the ion trajectories in the trap have been obtained for different cases and summarized in graphical form. For the recentering of the ion of interest and to perform the purification of the ion species, one has to set a reasonable buffer gas pressure in the trap and apply azimuthal quadrupolar excitation at frequency ωrf = ωc.
摘要：A new method including two sub-procedures, global search and local refine, has been developed and presented to design a multiple-reflection time-of-flight (MRTOF) mass analyzer. By using this method, a different type of MRTOF mass analyzer, in which each mirror consists of five cylindrical electrodes, has been designed for isobaric separation for Lanzhou Penning Trap (LPT). The optimal potential parameters of the electrodes have been obtained and the maximal resolving power has been achieved to be 1.3x105 with a total time-of-flight of 6.5 ms for an ion species of 40Ar1+. The simulation shows the inaccuracy of the potentials applied to the mirror electrodes must be less than 50 ppm or preferably 20 ppm.
摘要：The proton-proton momentum correlation function (Cpp) from di#11;erent rapidity regions are systematically investigated for the Au + Au collisions at di#11;erent impact parameters and di#11;erent
energies from 400A MeV to 1500A MeV in the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model (IQMD) complemented by the Lednick #19; y and Lyuboshitz analytical method.
In particular, in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section (NNCS) dependence of the correlation function is brought into focus, while the impact parameter and energy dependence of the momentum
correlation function are also explored. The sizes of the emission source are extracted by #12;tting the
momentum correlation functions using the Gaussian source method. We #12;nd that the in-medium
nucleon-nucleon cross section obviously in uence the proton-proton momentum correlation function
which is from the whole rapidity or projectile/target rapidity region at smaller impact parameters,
but there is no e#11;ect on the mid-rapidity proton-proton momentum correlation function, which
indicates that the emission mechanism di#11;ers between projectile/target rapidity and mid-rapidity
摘要：The number of nucleon (NN) scaling of the directed ow v1 and elliptic ow (v2) as well as the
nuclear modi#12;cation factor (Rcp) are tested for light nuclei which are produced in 0.4A GeV
Au +Au collisions at di#11;erent impact parameters with two di#11;erent in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections in a
framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. In that energy domain,
the emission of light nuclei can be well described by the squeeze-out phenonomenon. The results show a
nice NN scaling behavior for ow parameters v1, v2 and Rcp. These results demonstrate that the nucleon
coalescence mechanism is responsible for nucleon-number scaling of above physical observables in squeezeout region in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy.
摘要：To investigate the corrosion products of Cr in molten FLiNaK salt (46.5 mol% LiF–11.5 mol% NaF–42 mol% KF), the corrosion test of the pure metal Cr was performed in molten FLiNaK salt at 700 ℃ for 200 h. The FLiNaK salt after the corrosion test was thoroughly investigated by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, a transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrate that the predominant oxidation state of Cr in FLiNaK salt is Cr3+, and the main corrosion product in cooled FLiNaK salt is K2NaCrF6.
摘要：In this paper, a novel method for selectively detection of dopamine (DA) in the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) is described. A nanometer-sized gold flower microelectrode (NGFME) is prepared by flame-etching and electrochemical deposition. The electrode tip was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The NGFME is sized at about 100 μm and dimensions of thorns of the electrode were in nanometers. By modifying with DA aptamer on the surface, the prepared aptasensor can selectively detect DA even in the presence of high concentration AA. Experimental results show that this NGFME has no response to AA. As a comparison, the carbon fiber electrode without DA aptamer modification is unable to effectively detect DA in the presence of AA. The NGFME is easy-to-prepare, selective and sensitive for DA detection down to 25 μm. The electrode can be expected to detect DA in vivo and in real biological samples.
摘要：The operation of the HIRFL accelerator has shown that the beam transmission efficiency of the sector focusing cyclotron (SFC) injector line is rather poor. Beam simulations have been performed to investigate the possible causes for this low transmission. It is predicted that the property of transversal coupling of the ion beam from electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source can be an important factor to degrade the beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, resulting in a serious particle loss. An improved operation scheme for the SECRAL associated line has been proposed, and the corresponding experiment was carried out. This paper presents the test results.
摘要：Experimental evidence is presented showing obvious azimuthal dependence of single event upsets (SEU) and multiple-bit upset (MBU) patterns in radiation hardened by design (RHBD) and MBU-sensitive static random access memories (SRAMs), due to the anisotropic device layouts. Depending on the test devices, a discrepancy from 24.5% to 50% in the SEU cross sections of dual interlock cell (DICE) SRAMs is shown between two perpendicular ion azimuths under the same tilt angle. Significant angular dependence of the SEU data in this kind of design is also observed, which does not fit the inverse-cosine law in the effective LET method. Ion trajectory-oriented MBU patterns are identified, which is also affected by the topological distribution of sensitive volumes. Due to that the sensitive volumes are periodically isolated by the BL/BLB contacts along the Y-axis direction, double-bit upsets along the X-axis become the predominant configuration under normal incidence. Predominant triple-bit upset and quadruple-bit upset patterns are the same under different ion azimuths (L-shaped and square-shaped configurations, respectively). Those results suggest that traditional RPP/IRPP model should be promoted to consider the azimuthal and angular dependence of single event effects in certain designs. During earth-based evaluation of SEE sensitivity, worst case beam direction, i.e., the worst case response, should be revealed to avoid underestimation of the on-orbit error rate.
摘要：High brightness γ-rays produced by laser Compton scattering (LCS) are ideal probes for the study of nucleon and nuclear structure. We propose such a γ-ray source using the backscattering of a laser from the bright electron beam produced by the linac of the Shanghai Soft X-ray Free-electron Laser (SXFEL) test facility at the Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP). The performance is optimized through theoretical analysis and benchmarked with 4D Monte-Carlo simulations. The peak brightness of the source is expected to be larger than 2×1022 photons/(mm2 mrad2 s 0.1%BW) and photon energy ranges from 3.7 MeV to 38.9 MeV. Its performance, compared to Extreme Light Infrastructure-Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP), and the Shanghai Laser-Electron Gamma-ray Source (SLEGS), is given. The potential for basic and applied research is also briefly outlined.
摘要：The Chinese Academy of Science has launched a thorium-based molten-salt reactor (TMSR) research project with a mission to research and develop a fission energy system of the fourth generation. The TMSR project intends to construct a liquid fuel molten-salt reactor (TMSR-LF), which uses fluoride salt as both the fuel and coolant, and a solid fuel molten-salt reactor (TMSR-SF), which uses fluoride salt as coolant and TRISO fuel. An optimized 2 MWth TMSR-LF has been designed to solve major technological challenges in the Th-U fuel cycle. Preliminary conceptual shielding design has also been performed to develop bulk shielding. In this study, the radiation dose and temperature distribution of the shielding bulk due to the core were simulated and analyzed by performing Monte Carlo simulations and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The MCNP calculated dose rate and neutron and gamma spectra indicate that the total dose rate due to the core at the external surface of the concrete wall was 1.91 μSv/h in the radial direction, 1.16 μSv/h above and 1.33 μSv/h below the bulk shielding. All the radiation dose rates due to the core were below the design criteria. Thermal analysis results show that the temperature at the outermost surface of the bulk shielding was 333.86 K, which was below the required limit value. The results indicate that the designed bulk shielding satisfies the radiation shielding requirements for the 2 MWth TMSR-LF.
摘要：Aluminium is widely used as an antimicrobial coagulant, food additive, and cookware. However, many reports indicate that aluminium may be a critical factor in many amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanism is still poorly understood, which limits efforts to prevent and treat these diseases. In this paper, using an ab initio method, we studied the interaction of Al-backbone ring structure with the π-electron-rich sidechains of His, Phe, Trp, and Tyr. We found that in the absence of water, the Al-backbone ring can stably bind with those sidechains. In the presence of water, the Al-backbone ring can bind to the His sidechain and cannot bind to the other sidechains. As revealed by further investigations, this could be attributed to the fact that there was a coordinate bond of the Al-backbone ring with the His sidechain, while there were the π-π stacking and cation-π-like interactions with the other sidechains. These findings potentially provide a molecular understanding of Al-related toxicity, and may be helpful in designing drugs for those aforementioned aluminum-linked diseases and encourage treatment of Al-polluted water.
摘要：In order to do alignment between the timing signal and the synchrotron X-ray pulse on the sample spot in the time domain, measuring time structure of the storage ring on the sample spot inside the experimental hutch is a foundational step during the time-resolved experiments using the pulsed synchrotron X-rays with the time structure defined by the storage ring. In this work, the method of time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence (TRXEOL) was designed and implemented to do the measurement. It is based on the principle of time-correlated single photon counting techniques. The measurement system consists of a spectrometer with a detector of photomultiplier tube, a timing system, a set of nuclear instrument modules and a luminescent material of zinc oxide. The measurement was performed on the X-ray absorbed fine structure spectrum beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that this method can be used to measure the time structure of the storage ring with a precision of less than 1 ns. The measurement system can also be used for the time-resolved research for the optical luminescent materials.
摘要：The contents and distributions of metal elements in the brain are closely related to neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined Fe, Cu and Zn contents in the brain section associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) using synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF). PD mouse model induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-terahydropyridine (MPTP) was used for the elemental analysis (e.g., Fe, Cu and Zn) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) region of mice brain tissue samples. We found that mice in the MPTP group had higher contents of Fe, Cu and Zn in the SNpc than the control group. After treating the PD mice with rapamycin, the contents of Fe, Cu and Zn were reduced, the dopamine neurons and motor function were rescued correspondingly. The results prompted that the SRXRF provided an ideal method for tracing and analyzing the metal elements in the brain section to assess the pathological changes of PD model and the therapeutic effect of drugs.