摘要：Abstract：Individuals have been observed to show higher propensity to make risk investments using non-labor income compared to labor income, although the underlying mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain unclear. In this study, we proposed that non-labor income leads to a higher prior expectation of risky investment and a reduced sensitivity towards losses. To quantitatively test this hypothesis, we employed computational modeling. A total 103 participants were recruited and completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) with an equal monetary endowment, either as a token for completion of survey questionnaires (labor income) or as a prize from a lucky draw game (non-labor income). We found that individuals endowed with non-labor income made more risky investments in the BART compared to those with labor income. To formally compare the differences in the dynamic risk investment process between individuals with different source of income, we built four candidate computational models (Bayesian Sequential Risk-taking Model, Target Model, Scaled Target Learning Model and Scaled Target Learning with Decay Model (STL-D)). Through computational modeling, we found that within STL-D, the optimal model, the non-labor income group preset a higher targeted number of pumps at the beginning, showed a lower learning rate towards loss trials where the balloon exploded, and had lower behavioral consistency. Our study suggests that the increased tendency for risky investments with non-labor income can be attributed to an increase in prior expectations on risk-taking and a diminished sensitivity towards loss. These findings provide potential intervention targets to mitigate irrational investments associated with non-labor income.
摘要：目的 通过护理临床实践及对照观察，探讨了循经拔罐对腰椎间盘突出症患者下肢疼痛的缓解疗效。方法 选取2018年 1— 8月在山东省文登整骨医院住院的 134 例腰椎间盘突出症患者为研究对象，按照简单随机数字表法分为对照组和观察组，各67例。对观察组患者，进行循经拔罐治疗。对比两组患者治疗前、治疗1周后腰椎功能评分、疼痛程度评分以及不良反应情况。结果 观察组67例患者、对照组 67 例患者完成研究。干预1周后观察组患者各项评分均显著低于对照组（P＜ 0.05）。结论 循经拔罐法对腰椎间盘突出症患者的术后下肢疼痛，有良好的治疗效果。
摘要：总结1例晚期结肠癌多脏器转移伴肺栓塞患者的护理经验。方法 对我院近期收治的1例晚期结肠癌多脏器转移伴肺栓塞患者进行护理，包括：基础护理、病情观察，肺栓塞护理、疼痛护理、心理护理及睡眠护理等。结果 经过积极治疗和精心护理后，患者最终好转出院。结论 对晚期结肠癌多脏器转移伴肺栓塞患者进行综合护理评估后，制定个体化护理方案可以缩短患者住院时间，对调整患者机体营养状态具有积极意义,有利于进一步提升机体免疫功能，提高患者满意度。
摘要：The principal component analysis (PCA) is a frequently used machine learning method. In this paper, the PCA operation is explained by examples with Python program illustration. A proof of the diagonalizability of real symmetric matrix is also included, which may help to understand the mathematics behind PCA.
摘要：The Trojan horse method was employed to indirectly measure the bare-nucleus reaction cross-section and astrophysical S-factor of the 9Be(p,α) 6Li reaction in the low-energy region , utilizing the three-body reaction 2H(9Be,α 6Li)n. Comparing the two-body reaction data extracted from the Trojan horse method with that obtained through direct measurements, compatibility is observed in the energy region above approximately 100 keV. Additionally, the THM data successfully reproduces the expected low-energy resonance peak around 270 keV. The THM extraction of the astrophysical factor yields S(0) = 21.0 ± 0.8 MeV b, which surpasses the extrapolation obtained from direct measurements. The 9Be(p,α) 6Li reaction channel exhibits a subthreshold resonance with a width of 25 keV, positioned approximately -23 keV below the threshold. However, the strong electron shielding effect near the zero energy position in direct measurements often masks the influence of the subthreshold resonance on the low-energy region. In contrast, the THM method allows us to neglect the electron shielding effect. The THM experimental data were subjected to fitting using the Breit-Wigner function and subsequently compared with directly measured data. Following a comprehensive comparative analysis, it was discerned that the S(0) value obtained through THM exceeded the extrapolated value derived from direct measurements. This disparity was primarily attributed to the influence of the subthreshold resonance.
摘要：Objective: Nowadays, young adults are facing stressors from several aspects. They have already become the most anxious groups in Chinese society and in risk of developing a series of anxiety disorders. The theory of challenge-hindrance stress was proposed to explain the positive and negative outcomes of different stressors. It has been widely tested mostly in the field of organization and management. In the current study, we used the challenge-hindrance stress theory to clarify the association between stress in daily life and anxiety. We also examined the HPA-axis function buffering the influence of daily stress on anxiety.
Methods: we used the edited Chinese version of challenge-hindrance stress scales to measure challenge and hindrance stress over 6 months. The level of anxiety was measured by state-trait anxiety inventory. We also carried out a Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in laboratory and recorded the change of cortisol level during the 60 minutes right after the acute stress.
Results: Results show that the recent level of hindrance stress positively predicts trait anxiety, but the level of challenge stress does not predict trait anxiety. It is also found that, the cortisol decline rate during the recovery of acute stress moderates the association between stress and anxiety. To be exact, individuals with low cortisol decline rate could not recover to baseline level even after rather long rest, and hindrance stress in their lives would lead to higher level of anxiety. But for individuals who has high cortisol decline rate after acute stress, they recover fast to baseline after the stressor disappear, and they become less anxious although facing the same level of hindrance stress
Limitations: Firstly, we only examined anxiety but left other distal outcomes of stress such as wellbeing to be further studied. Secondly, we choose the decline rate of cortisol to represent the HPA-axis function instead of taking different systems into consideration. Thirdly, stress appraisal could be further examined in the challenge-hindrance stress researches in addition to different stressors.
Conclusions: The current study checked the association between stress and anxiety under the framework of challenge-hindrance stress. We examined the moderating mechanism of HPA-axis function, and discussed the effect of physiological toughness from the respective of resources and demands.
摘要：A fully digital data acquisition system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) was developed for a CsI(Tl) array at the External Target Facility (ETF)in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL). To process the CsI(Tl) signals generated by γ-rays and light-charged ions, a scheme for digital pulse processing algorithms is proposed. Every step in the algorithms was benchmarked using standard γ and α sources. The scheme, which included a moving average filter, baseline restoration, leading-edge discrimination, moving window deconvolution and digital charge comparison was subsequently implemented on the FPGA. A good energy resolution of 5.7% for 1.33 MeV γ rays and excellent α-γ identification using the digital charge comparison method were achieved, which satisfies CsI(Tl) array performance requirements.
摘要：The total absolute cross sections of single- and double-electron capture (SEC and DEC) in the collisions of He2+ with He and Ne8+ with O2, N2, and CH4 were studied in the energy ranges 3.5 to 50 keV/u and 2.8 to 40 keV/u, respectively. Through a deep analysis of the experimental systematic uncertainties in the measurement procedure and data evaluation, the error in the experimental results of the SEC cross sections is less than 9%. Within the uncertainties, the present results of the He2+ -He collision show good consistency with previous measurements, validating the experimental system and paving the way for precise measurements of EC cross sections for a variety of ions and neutral gases. The present measurements allow for a test of EC theory and provide crucial EC cross section data for the establishment of plasma models in fusion research and astrophysical X-ray studies.
摘要：背景 痛风是最常见的炎症性关节炎，对人们的健康造成很大的危害，但目前针对我国痛风疾病负担趋势分析与预测的相关研究有限。目的 分析 1990—2019 年中国痛风疾病负担的变化趋势，并预测未来 10 年痛风的标化 DALYs 率、标化发病率和标化患病率。方法 提取全球疾病负担研究（GBD）2019 有关中国痛风伤残调整寿命年（DALYs）、发病情况和患病情况等疾病负担指标，采用 Joinpoint 回归模型计算标化 DALYs 率、发病率和患病率的年度变化百分比（APC）和平均年度变化百分比（AAPC），采用自回归移动平均模型（ARIMA 模型）对 2020—2029 年的标化 DALYs 率、标化发病率和标化患病率进行预测。结果 1990—2019 年，中国痛风 DALYs 从 187 436 人年增至 510 485 人年，增长了 172.35%，发病人数从 1 181 969 人增至 3 041 329 人，增长了 157.31%，患病人数从 5
864 143 人增至 16 161 325 人，增长了 175.60%（对应的标化率分别增长了 28.45%、25.92% 和 28.63%）。Joinpoint 回归结果显示，1990—2019 年，标化 DALYs 率、发病率、患病率整体呈上升趋势（AAPC 分别为 0.9%、0.8%、0.9%，P<0.05）。痛风疾病负担具有明显的性别和年龄差异，男性疾病负担高于女性，标化 DALYs 率、标化发病率和标化患病率男女性别比范围分别为 3.23~3.51、3.14~3.40 和 3.17~3.42。女性各指标年龄高峰总体比男性延后，女性在 45 岁之后疾病负担开始加重，男女性疾病负担均在 90 岁之后再次增加。ARIMA 模型结果显示，预计到 2029 年，因痛风造成的标化 DALYs 率和标化发病率分别下降 0.33% 和 0.45%，标化患病率上升 0.71%。结论 1990—2019 年中国痛风疾病负担增长趋势明显，存在明显的性别和年龄差异，且出现年轻化趋势。预计到 2029 年，因痛风造成的标化患病率略有上升。
摘要：Abstract: In this experimental study, involving deuterium–deuterium fusion neutron emission spectroscopy (NES) measurement on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST), a liquid scintillator detector (BC501A) was employed. This decision was based on the detector's superior sensitivity, optimal time-response, and its exceptional n-γ discrimination capability. This detector emits fast pulse signals that are as narrow as 100 ns, with high count rates that can peak at several Mcps. However, conventional nuclear circuits faced challenges in performing pulse height analysis, n–γ pulse shape discrimination (PSD), and in recording the entire pulse waveform under such high-count-rate conditions. To address these challenges, a high-speed digital pulse signal acquisition and processing system was designed. The system was developed around a micro-telecommunications computing architecture (MTCA). Within this structure, a signal acquisition and processing (SAQP) module communicated through PCI Express (PCIe) links, achieving a bandwidth of up to 1.6 GB/s. To accurately capture the detailed shape of the pulses, four channels of analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) were used, each with a 500-MSPS sampling rate and a 14-bit resolution, ensuring an accuracy that surpassed 11 bits. An n-γ discrimination algorithm, based on the two-gate integral method, was also developed. Implemented within field programmable gate arrays (FPGA), this algorithm provided a real-time n-γ discrimination spectrum for pulse height analysis. The system underwent rigorous testing in a laboratory setting and during an EAST experiment. The results confirmed that the innovative SAQP system can satisfy the demanding requirements of high-parameter experiments, manage count rates of up to 2 Mcps, execute real-time n-γ discrimination algorithms, and record entire pulse waveforms without any data loss.
摘要：第三方惩罚(third-party punishment, TPP)指个体作为第三方或者观察者为维护社会规范对违规者所实施的惩罚行为。大量研究为揭示TPP行为的神经机制提供了启示，但鲜有研究关注不同功能性脑网络在其中发挥的整体作用。本文综述了近十年来TPP相关的研究，对相关理论模型和脑网络进行总结，并在此基础上提出TPP的认知神经网络模型，系统地对TPP行为背后的神经机制进行解释和整合。在该模型中，情绪系统和奖赏系统是TPP的动力来源，认知系统主要负责责任评估以及惩罚的选择；奖赏网络、突显网络、默认模式网络和中央执行网络分别参与不同认知加工阶段。该模型建立了TPP相关研究在心理层面和认知神经层面上的联系，对TPP行为的发生和发展机制进行了更加整体、全面的解释。未来可以引入元分析或基于机器学习的分析方法，在不同的背景信息和更加复杂的社交情境下探讨第三方干预偏好以及背后的认知神经机制。
摘要：Background: While psychosocial stressors trigger neuroendocrine responses and affect task performance, many studies overlook the dynamic nature of the stress appraisal process. Goal: This study aims to explore whether subjective appraisals at various time points can interpret individual stress responses, both behaviorally and physiologically, using controlled laboratory conditions. Methods: A total of 137 effective participants were recruited to induce individual stress states using the Trier Social stress Test (TSST). Subjective appraisals were measured both before (anticipatory appraisal) and after the stressor (retrospective appraisal). Concurrently, participants' cortisol responses and task performances were documented. Results: Findings indicate that anticipatory appraisal doesn't significantly impact task performance, whereas retrospective appraisal markedly affects performance of the corresponding tasks. Regarding cortisol levels, multivariate regression analysis revealed that only the retrospective appraisal of the speech task accounted for the observed variance in cortisol response under stress. Discussion: The data suggests that retrospective appraisals are more indicative of behavioral and physiological responses to psychosocial stressors than anticipatory appraisals. These findings lend empirical support to refining the biopsychosocial model and underscore the utility of retrospective appraisal in capturing individual stress response variations.