摘要：We analyse H(z) parameter data with some conditions by using Lagrange mean value theorem in Calculus. We find that: (1) there exists at least one decelerated phase at 1 $ sigma$ confidence level in the redshift range (0.38, 0.59); (2) the equation of motion of dark energy may be less than -1 at 1 σ confidence level at some redshifts in the redshift range (1.3, 1.53); (3) there exists at least one accelerated phase at 1 σ confidence level in the redshift range (1.037, 1.944). These results may provide possible evidences for physics beyond $ Lambd ACDM.
摘要：In this paper, we reported a method to modify the crystallization of CZTSSe films by changing the microstructures of the precursor films. Precursor films with different microstructures were prepared and their crystallization processes were analyzed. We find even tiny differences in microstructures of the precursor films can result in significant alteration of the crystallization processes and the properties of CZTSSe films. Moreover, we found the S-to-Se substitution can be delayed to higher temperature depending on the microstructure of the precursor. This process plays critical roles in enhanceing the crystallization of CZTSSe films and can be used to eliminate the multi-layer crystallization in CZTSSe films. The detailed analysis on the crystallization processes revealed that different mechanism may dominate the crystallization of the films, which can determine the properties of CZTSSe films and solar cells. Moreover, a hybrid structure for precursor film was proposed which has different microstructures in different part of the film. In such a precursor film, different crystallization mechanism can work synergically during the preparation of the film. As the results, the comprehensive properties of the films were improved and solar cells with efficiencies up to 12.6% was prepared.