摘要：Evaluating the comprehensive characteristics of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photoresists is crucial for their application in EUV lithography, a key process in modern technology. This paper highlights the capabilities of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) 08U1B beamline in advancing this field. Specifically, it demonstrates how this beamline can create fringe patterns with a 15-nm half-pitch (HP) on a resist using synchrotron-based EUV lithography (EUV-IL). This achievement is vital for evaluating EUV photoresists at the advanced 5-nm node. We provide a detailed introduction to the methods and experimental setup used at the SSRF 08U1B beamline to assess an EUV photoresist. A significant part of this research involved the fabrication of high-resolution hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) mask gratings. These gratings, with an aspect ratio of approximately 3, were created using electron beam lithography (EBL) on an innovative mask framework. This framework was crucial in eliminating the impact of zeroth-order light on interference patterns. The proposed framework offers a new approach to mask fabrication, particularly beneficial for achromatic Talbot lithography and multicoherent-beam interference applications.
摘要：BL10U2 is an undulator-based macromolecular crystallography (MX) beamline located at the 3.5-GeV Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. BL10U2 is specifically designed for conducting routine and bio safety level-2 (BSL-2) MX experiments utilizing high-flux tunable X-rays with energies from 7 to 18 keV, providing a beam spot size of 20 µm (horizontal) × 10 µm (vertical) at the sample point. Certification by the Shanghai Pudong Municipal Health Commission confirmed the capability to perform BSL-2 MX experiments. The beamline is currently equipped with an Eiger X 16M detector and two newly developed in-house high-precision diffractometers that can be switched to perform conventional or in situ crystal diffraction experiments. An automatic sample changer developed in-house allows fast sample exchange in less than 30s, supporting high-throughput MX experimentation and rapid crystal screening. Data collection from both the diffractometer and detector was controlled by an in-house developed data collection software (Finback) with a user-friendly interface for convenient operation. This study presents a comprehensive overview of the facilities, experimental methods, and performance characteristics of the BL10U2 beamline.
摘要：Analysis of environmental significance and hydrochemical characteristics of river water in mountainous regions is vital for ensuring water security. In this study, we collected a total of 164 water samples in the western region of the Altay Mountains, China, in 2021. We used principal component analysis and enrichment factor analysis to examine the chemical properties and spatiotemporal variations of major ions (including F–, Cl–, NO3–, SO42–, Li+, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) present in river water, as well as to identify the factors influencing these variations. Additionally, we assessed the suitability of river water for drinking and irrigation purposes based on the total dissolved solids, soluble sodium percentage, sodium adsorption ratio, and total hardness. Results revealed that river water had an alkaline aquatic environment with a mean pH value of 8.00. The mean ion concentration was ranked as follows: Ca2+>SO42–>Na+>NO3–>Mg2+>K+>Cl–>F–>NH4+>Li+. Ca2+, SO42–, Na+, and NO3– occupied 83% of the total ion concentration. In addition, compared with other seasons, the spatial variation of the ion concentration in spring was obvious. An analysis of the sources of major ions revealed that these ions originated mainly from carbonate dissolution and silicate weathering. The recharge impact of precipitation and snowmelt merely influenced the concentration of Cl–, NO3–, SO42–, Ca2+, and Na+. Overall, river water was in pristine condition in terms of quality and was suitable for both irrigation and drinking. This study provides a scientific basis for sustainable management of water quality in rivers of the Altay Mountains.
摘要：The Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source is a critical device for producing highly charged ion beams in various applications. Analyzing the charge-state distribution of the ion beams is essential, but the manual analysis is labor-intensive and prone to inaccuracies due to impurity ions. An automatic spectrum recognition system based on intelligent algorithms was proposed for rapid and accurate chargestate analysis of ECR ion sources. The system employs an adaptive window-length Savitzky-Golay (SG) filtering algorithm, an improved automatic multiscale peak detection (AMPD) algorithm, and a greedy matching algorithm based on the relative distance to accurately match different peaks in the spectra with the corresponding charge-state ion species. Additionally, a user-friendly operator interface was developed for ease of use. Extensive testing on the online ECR ion source platform demonstrates that the system achieves high accuracy, with an average root mean square error of less than 0.1 A for identifying charge-state spectra of ECR ion sources. Moreover, the system minimizes the standard deviation of the first-order derivative of the smoothed signal to 81.1846 A. These results indicate the capability of the designed system to identify ion beam spectra with mass numbers less than Xe, including Xe itself. The proposed automatic spectrum recognition system represents a significant advancement in ECR ion source analysis, offering a rapid and accurate approach for charge-state analysis while enhancing supply efficiency. The exceptional performance and successful implementation of the proposed system on multiple ECR ion source platforms at IMPCAS highlight its potential for widespread adoption in ECR ion source research and applications.
摘要：This paper introduces the proposed Insertion Device (ID) scheme for the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility Upgrade (SSRF-U). Based on this scheme, the influences of the ID radiation on the Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) emittance and energy spread were evaluated. Optical distortion caused by the IDs was comprehensively examined and compensated using both local and global corrections. Subsequently, a Frequency Map Analysis (FMA) method was used to identify potentially dangerous resonance lines. In addition, the dynamic aperture, energy acceptance, and Touschek lifetime were calculated after considering high-order magnetic field errors to ensure that the ID effect did not affect the operation of the storage ring.
摘要：A fully digital data acquisition system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) was developed for a CsI(Tl) array at the External Target Facility (ETF)in the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou(HIRFL). To process the CsI(Tl) signals generated by γ-rays and light-charged ions, a scheme for digital pulse processing algorithms is proposed. Every step in the algorithms was benchmarked using standard γ and α sources. The scheme, which included a moving average filter, baseline restoration, leading-edge discrimination, moving window deconvolution and digital charge comparison was subsequently implemented on the FPGA. A good energy resolution of 5.7% for 1.33 MeV γ rays and excellent α-γ identification using the digital charge comparison method were achieved, which satisfies CsI(Tl) array performance requirements.
摘要：Intensity-modulated particle therapy (IMPT) with carbon ions is comparatively susceptible to various uncertainties caused by breathing motion, including range, setup, and target positioning uncertainties. To determine relative biological effectiveness-weighted dose (RWD) distributions that are resilient to these uncertainties, the reference phase-based four-dimensional (4D) robust optimization (RP-4DRO) and each phase-based 4D robust optimization (EP-4DRO) method in carbon-ion IMPT treatment planning were evaluated and compared. Based on RWD distributions, 4DRO methods were compared with 4D conventional optimization using planning target volume (PTV) margins (PTV-based optimization) to assess the effectiveness of the robust optimization methods. Carbon-ion IMPT treatment planning was conducted in a cohort of five lung cancer patients. The results indicated that the EP-4DRO method provided better robustness (P=0.080) and improved plan quality (P=0.225) for the clinical target volume (CTV) in the individual respiratory phase when compared with the PTV-based optimization. Compared with the PTV-based optimization, the RP-4DRO method ensured the robustness (P = 0.022) of the dose distributions in the reference breathing phase, albeit with a slight sacrifice of the target coverage (P=0.450). Both 4DRO methods successfully maintained the doses delivered to the organs at risk (OARs) below tolerable levels, which were lower than the doses in the PTV-based optimization (P<0.05). Furthermore, the RP-4DRO method exhibited significantly superior performance when compared with the EP-4DRO method in enhancing overall OAR sparing in either the individual respiratory phase or reference respiratory phase (P<0.05). In general, both 4DRO methods outperformed the PTV-based optimization in terms of OAR sparing and robustness.
摘要：The purpose of this study was to design a rapid cycling synchrotron, making it capable of proton beam ultra-high dose rate irradiation, inspired by laser accelerators. The design had to be cheap and simple. We consider our design from six aspects: the lattice, injection, extraction, space charge effects, eddy current effects and energy switching. Efficiency and particle quantity must be addressed when injected. The space charge effects at the injection could affect particles’ number. The eddy current effects in the vacuum chambers would affect the magnetic field itself and generate heat, all of which need to be taken into account. Fast extraction can obtain 1010 protons/pulse, equal to instantaneous dose rate up to 107 Gy/s in a very short time, while changing various extraction energies rapidly and easily to various deposition depths. In the further research we expect to combine a delivery system with this accelerator to realize the FLASH irradiation.
摘要：Livestock grazing is the most extensive land use in global drylands and one of the most extensive stressors of biological soil crusts (biocrusts). Despite widespread concern about the importance of biocrusts for global carbon (C) cycling, little is known about whether and how long-term grazing alters soil organic carbon (SOC) stability and stock in the biocrust layer. To assess the responses of SOC stability and stock in the biocrust layer to grazing, from June to September 2020, we carried out a large scale field survey in the restored grasslands under long-term grazing with different grazing intensities (represented by the number of goat dung per square meter) and in the grasslands strictly excluded from grazing in four regions (Dingbian County, Shenmu City, Guyuan City and Ansai District) along precipitation gradient in the hilly Loess Plateau, China. In total, 51 representative grassland sites were identified as the study sampling sites in this study, including 11 sites in Guyuan City, 16 sites in Dingbian County, 15 sites in Shenmu City and 9 sites in Ansai District. Combined with extensive laboratory analysis and statistical analysis, at each sampling site, we obtained data on biocrust attributes (cover, community structure, biomass and thickness), soil physical-chemical properties (soil porosity and soil carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio)), and environmental factors (mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, altitude, plant cover, litter cover, soil particle-size distribution (the ratio of soil clay and silt content to sand content)), SOC stability index (SI) and SOC stock (SOCS) in the biocrust layer, to conduct this study. Our results revealed that grazing did not change total biocrust cover but markedly altered biocrust community structure by reducing plant cover, with a considerable increase in the relative cover of cyanobacteria (23.1%) while a decrease in the relative cover of mosses (42.2%). Soil porosity and soil C/N ratio in the biocrust layer under grazing decreased significantly by 4.1%–7.2% and 7.2%–13.3%, respectively, compared with those under grazing exclusion. The shifted biocrust community structure ultimately resulted in an average reduction of 15.5% in SOCS in the biocrust layer under grazing. However, compared with higher grazing (intensity of more than 10.00 goat dung/m2), light grazing (intensity of 0.00–10.00 goat dung/m2 or approximately 1.20–2.60 goat/(hm2•a)) had no adverse effect on SOCS. SOC stability in the biocrust layer remained unchanged under long-term grazing due to the offset between the positive effect of the decreased soil porosity and the negative effect of the decreased soil C/N ratio on the SOC resistance to decomposition. Mean annual precipitation and soil particle-size distribution also regulated SOC stability indirectly by influencing soil porosity through plant cover and biocrust community structure. These findings suggest that proper grazing might not increase the CO2 release potential or adversely affect SOCS in the biocrust layer. This research provides some guidance for proper grazing management in the sustainable utilization of grassland resources and C sequestration in biocrusts in the hilly regions of drylands.
摘要：A deep learning-based automated Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror alignment method is proposed for synchrotron radiation. We trained a convolutional neural network (CNN) on simulated and experimental imaging data of a focusing system. Instead of learning directly from bypass images, we use a scatterer for X-ray modulation and speckle generation for image feature enhancement. The smallest normalized root mean square error on the validation set was 4%. Compared with conventional alignment methods based on motor scanning and analyzer setups, the present method simplified the optical layout and estimated alignment errors using a single-exposure experiment. Single-shot misalignment error estimation only took 0.13 s, significantly outperforming conventional methods. We also demonstrated the effects of the beam quality and pretraining using experimental data. The proposed method exhibited strong robustness, can handle high-precision focusing systems with complex or dynamic wavefront errors, and provides an important basis for intelligent control of future synchrotron radiation beamlines.
摘要：Proton computed tomography (CT) has a distinct practical significance in clinical applications. It eliminates 3–5% errors caused by the transformation of Hounsfield unit (HU) to relative stopping power (RSP) values when using X-ray CT for positioning and treatment planning systems (TPSs). Following the development of FLASH proton therapy, there are increased requirements for accurate and rapid positioning in TPSs. Thus, a new rapid proton CT imaging mode is proposed based on sparsely sampled projections. The proton beam was boosted to 350 MeV by a compact proton linear accelerator (linac). In this study, the comparisons of the proton scattering with the energy of 350 MeV and 230 MeV are conducted based on GEANT4 simulations. As the sparsely sampled information associated with beam acquisitions at 12 angles is not enough for reconstruction, X-ray CT is used as a prior image. The RSP map generated by converting the X-ray CT was constructed based on Monte Carlo simulations. Considering the estimation of the most likely path (MLP), the prior image-constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) algorithm is used to reconstruct images from two different phantoms using sparse proton projections of 350 MeV parallel proton beam. The results show that it is feasible to realize the proton image reconstruction with the rapid proton CT imaging proposed in this paper. It can produce RSP maps with much higher accuracy for TPSs and fast positioning to achieve ultra-fast imaging for real-time image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in clinical proton therapy applications.
摘要：Co-phase and co-focus detection is one of the key technologies for large-aperture segmented mirror telescopes. In this paper, a new edge sensor based on fringes of equal thickness is developed, which can detect each segment's relative piston, tilt, and tip errors from the interferograms. Based on the co-focus demand for many ground-based seeing limited segmented mirror telescopes, an edge sensor prototype based on such a principle is built and applied in the indoor segmented mirror experiment system in the lab. According to the co-focus requirement of the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope, many simulations and experiments are carried out for co-focus error detection of the segmented mirror system. Experiment results show that the co-focus accuracy is better than 0."02 rms, which can meet the co-focus requirements of most large or extremely large segmented mirror astronomical telescopes.
摘要：The ion motions in a Penning trap have been studied in detail in the presence of azimuthal dipolar and quadrupolar radio-frequency excitations and buffer gas cooling. The numerical solutions by using the Runge-Kutta method and thus the pictures of the ion trajectories in the trap have been obtained for different cases and summarized in graphical form. For the recentering of the ion of interest and to perform the purification of the ion species, one has to set a reasonable buffer gas pressure in the trap and apply azimuthal quadrupolar excitation at frequency ωrf = ωc.
摘要：A new method including two sub-procedures, global search and local refine, has been developed and presented to design a multiple-reflection time-of-flight (MRTOF) mass analyzer. By using this method, a different type of MRTOF mass analyzer, in which each mirror consists of five cylindrical electrodes, has been designed for isobaric separation for Lanzhou Penning Trap (LPT). The optimal potential parameters of the electrodes have been obtained and the maximal resolving power has been achieved to be 1.3x105 with a total time-of-flight of 6.5 ms for an ion species of 40Ar1+. The simulation shows the inaccuracy of the potentials applied to the mirror electrodes must be less than 50 ppm or preferably 20 ppm.
摘要：The proton-proton momentum correlation function (Cpp) from di#11;erent rapidity regions are systematically investigated for the Au + Au collisions at di#11;erent impact parameters and di#11;erent
energies from 400A MeV to 1500A MeV in the framework of the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model (IQMD) complemented by the Lednick #19; y and Lyuboshitz analytical method.
In particular, in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross section (NNCS) dependence of the correlation function is brought into focus, while the impact parameter and energy dependence of the momentum
correlation function are also explored. The sizes of the emission source are extracted by #12;tting the
momentum correlation functions using the Gaussian source method. We #12;nd that the in-medium
nucleon-nucleon cross section obviously in uence the proton-proton momentum correlation function
which is from the whole rapidity or projectile/target rapidity region at smaller impact parameters,
but there is no e#11;ect on the mid-rapidity proton-proton momentum correlation function, which
indicates that the emission mechanism di#11;ers between projectile/target rapidity and mid-rapidity
摘要：The number of nucleon (NN) scaling of the directed ow v1 and elliptic ow (v2) as well as the
nuclear modi#12;cation factor (Rcp) are tested for light nuclei which are produced in 0.4A GeV
Au +Au collisions at di#11;erent impact parameters with two di#11;erent in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections in a
framework of an isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. In that energy domain,
the emission of light nuclei can be well described by the squeeze-out phenonomenon. The results show a
nice NN scaling behavior for ow parameters v1, v2 and Rcp. These results demonstrate that the nucleon
coalescence mechanism is responsible for nucleon-number scaling of above physical observables in squeezeout region in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energy.
摘要：To investigate the corrosion products of Cr in molten FLiNaK salt (46.5 mol% LiF–11.5 mol% NaF–42 mol% KF), the corrosion test of the pure metal Cr was performed in molten FLiNaK salt at 700 ℃ for 200 h. The FLiNaK salt after the corrosion test was thoroughly investigated by X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy, a transmission electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction. The results demonstrate that the predominant oxidation state of Cr in FLiNaK salt is Cr3+, and the main corrosion product in cooled FLiNaK salt is K2NaCrF6.
摘要：In this paper, a novel method for selectively detection of dopamine (DA) in the interference of ascorbic acid (AA) is described. A nanometer-sized gold flower microelectrode (NGFME) is prepared by flame-etching and electrochemical deposition. The electrode tip was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The NGFME is sized at about 100 μm and dimensions of thorns of the electrode were in nanometers. By modifying with DA aptamer on the surface, the prepared aptasensor can selectively detect DA even in the presence of high concentration AA. Experimental results show that this NGFME has no response to AA. As a comparison, the carbon fiber electrode without DA aptamer modification is unable to effectively detect DA in the presence of AA. The NGFME is easy-to-prepare, selective and sensitive for DA detection down to 25 μm. The electrode can be expected to detect DA in vivo and in real biological samples.
摘要：The operation of the HIRFL accelerator has shown that the beam transmission efficiency of the sector focusing cyclotron (SFC) injector line is rather poor. Beam simulations have been performed to investigate the possible causes for this low transmission. It is predicted that the property of transversal coupling of the ion beam from electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source can be an important factor to degrade the beam quality by increasing the beam emittance, resulting in a serious particle loss. An improved operation scheme for the SECRAL associated line has been proposed, and the corresponding experiment was carried out. This paper presents the test results.